Professional Ethics for Scientists
Annotated Bibliography

for a Course in Ethics in Science at Towson University

The annotated bibliography below was created for the advanced writing course Professional Ethics for Scientists, WRIT 335 / CHEM 301, by Dr. Linda M. Sweeting, Department of Chemistry. The bibliography is organized by course topic, as described by the detailed outline below. The syllabus has the current schedule, assignments and grading.

Please feel free to use these references at this site, but not to print them en masse: they have been placed on this WWW site as part of an ethical commitment to save trees. Since others have helped me find and evaluate these references, I cannot claim ownership, so you are free to download them if you wish, but please give credit for the collection if you use it, as any responsible, ethical scholar would do.

To find references on a particular topic, either:

  • Go down a few lines to "Types of References" and select the kind of information desired. Internet, Journal, Society gives links to other sites and periodical titles, the Course Topics and Outline has a short description of the course with links to annotated book and article references, Novels and (Auto)Biographies lists such books raising ethical issues in science, and Writing Tips has grammar style essays and manuals, both general and scientific.
  • Use Edit, Find in Page in the command line for Netscape or MS Internet Explorer and enter the keyword or author you want.

  • To converse with the instructor and webmaster, e-mail to

    Last Update June 2000

    Types of References, with Links to Resources
    Internet, Journal, Society Course Topics and Outline Novels, (Auto)Biographies Writing Tips


    1. Web sites
    2. Internet lists
    3. Societies and Organizations
    4. Journals


    The letters coding the sections in the course outline below -- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I -- are ALSO used:

    • in the course schedule, to link it to the outline;
    • in the reference lists, to classify the references by topic;
    • within each reference annotation, to indicate the range of topics for each book and article.
    For example, CDE would indicate information about interactions of peers, bosses and employees / students.

    Course planning materials for teachers of ethics in science (see also the materials linked to the outline below.)

    1. Introduction (Web Sites)
      1. Approaches to identifying moral and ethical standards by philosophy / religion
      2. The nature of science, with some philosophy of science.
      3. The ethical dilemmas in academia for students and teachers.
      4. The life in a scientist in research and development.
      5. Professional ethics in science - are the ethical issues different?
      6. Related professional ethics

    2. Scientists and their Experiments (Web Sites)
      1. The scientific method: myth and reality. How science is really done. How the scientific literature is created and who does it (Adobe Acrobat files)
      2. Design and execution of experiments: opportunities for error and fraud
        1. Research questions and intent
        2. Anticipation and prevention of systematic errors
        3. Data collection and records
        4. Data analysis and software reliability
        5. Statistical methods, their use and misuse (sometimes deliberate)
      3. Publishing experiments: the scientific literature
        1. Expected content of publications: experiments, analysis, replicability, connections, conclusions
        2. Peer review, publication and ownership
      4. The role of error in science and technology
        1. Self-deception, wishful thinking and seduction by data which confirm the hypothesis
        2. Carelessness, sloppy science, and the rush to publish
      5. Scientific Misconduct -- Deliberate misrepresentation of data and analysis.
        1. Examples of that clearly represent fraudulent science.
        2. Why do scientists commit fraud -- fabrication, falsification and plagiarism?
        3. Is it fraud or error? How can you distinguish?
        4. Is the process of selecting and analyzing data intrinsically a misrepresentation?
      6. Standards for scientific behavior and information
        1. Federal (NIH, NSF) and NAS definition of fraud and misconduct
        2. Procedures for dealing with scientific misconduct.
        3. Statements of good practice for publication of research results, codes of ethics for scientific societies
        4. Publication pressure: the minimum publishable unit, evaluation standards.

    3. Scientists and their Peers (Web Sites)
      1. The roles of colleagues
        1. Collaborators and credit: coauthors, acknowledgements and references
        2. Reviewers of manuscripts and proposals: privilege and responsibility with prepublication information, ensuring the integrity of the literature, fair evaluations, protection of the ownership of the ideas.
        3. Sources of information: papers, web pages, seminars, meeting presentations
        4. Organizers of symposia and editors of books
        5. Evaluators of careers: jealousy, personality, sex and race
      2. Ensuring the integrity of the research literature:
        1. Standards of behavior for authors
        2. Detecting and reporting fraud and error - does peer review do this?
        3. Protecting the existence of the scientific literature. Copyrights and plagiarism with paper journals. Fair use of copyrighted materials. On-line journals and copyright laws.
      3. Bias in peer interactions
        1. Gender and race discrimination
        2. Science used to justify discrimination
        3. Ideological bias
      4. Conflict of interest: unavoidable with peers and bosses
        1. Time and effort conflicts
        2. Money and ownership conflicts
        3. Scientific conflicts
        4. Loyalty conflicts
        5. Disclosure or disqualification from some activities.

    4. Scientists and their Protegees / Employees (Web Sites)
      1. Roles of teachers, mentors and bosses.
      2. Responsibility for safety and security
      3. Responsible mentoring and evaluation
      4. Bias in power relationships - more conflict of interest
        1. Irresponsible mentoring
        2. Gender and race, sexual harassment,
        3. Other discrimination is similar to that among peers
      5. Credit, appropriate authorship, and letters of ecommendation

    5. Scientists, their Bosses and their Funding (Web Sites)
      1. Characteristics of work environments
        1. Power structures
        2. Academia: Administration and Public Funding
        3. Academia: Private funding of research and conflict of interest
        4. Industry: Management, funding, external regulation, e.g. by law
        5. Consulting: Divided loyalties / conflict of interest.
        6. Government: supervisors and taxpayers (see Funding)
        7. Proprietary and classified research (see politics, secrecy and war).
      2. Disagreements about
        1. scientific methods, facts and interpretation
        2. uses of discoveries
        3. people, e.g. credit, intellectual property, sexual harassment and discrimination.
      3. Resolving disagreements and conflicts
        1. From within the organization
        2. Outside the organization, an action commonly called Whistle-blowing
      4. Career choice with these factors in mind.

    6. Scientists and the Public (Web Sites)
      1. The roles of science in society
      2. Occasions when scientists interact with the public
      3. Demands on scientists by society
        1. Politics, secrecy and war, esp. physics and chemistry.
      4. Responsibility of scientists
        1. Research relevance, outcomes, accuracy, esp. of publicly funded research
        2. The letter of the law: RCRA, OSHA, etc.
        3. Beyond the letter of the law: public responsibility.
        4. Anticipating consequences of science and technology (e.g. pollution, drug side effects), contributing to constructive use of inventions.
        5. Educating the public regarding facts, uncertainty, risk assessment.
        6. Correcting pseudoscience and myth.
      5. Responsibilities of all citizens, society
        1. Democracy should support good science and shun politics and religion disguised as science
        2. Funding of science by government agencies - what are appropriate expectations?
        3. Civil liberties and national security
        4. Proprietary rights and public safety

    7. Special Topics: Issues in Biology, Medicine, Engineering and Computer Science which differ from the other sciences
    8. (Web Sites)
      1. Research in Archaeology, Anthropology and Sociology
      2. Research in Biology
        1. General issues
        2. Use of animal and human subjects
        3. Ecosystem impact by scientists
        4. Genetic engineering and its dangers and implications
      3. Medicine
        1. Who should have the power to make decisions?
        2. The impact of genetic testing on privacy, insurance, etc.
        3. Selection of human subjects
        4. Effect on human life expectancy and quality
      4. Engineering and Computer Science
        1. Software and hardware reliability
        2. Software ownership and rights to use
        3. Engineering and the public trust

    9. Scientists and the Future of the Earth (Web Sites)
      1. Philosophical approaches to environmental ethics
      2. The major issues: human population, pollution, quality of life
      3. Other specific environmental issues
      4. Do scientists have environmental responsibilities beyond other citizens?

    10. Codes of Ethics for Scientists
      1. NAS/NAM/NAE
      2. AAAS
      3. Chemistry Societies
      4. American Physical Society
      5. Biological Societies
      6. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

    11. Questioning the premises of scientific thought and practice.
      1. The feminist critique -- perhaps scientific models and practice would be different if devised by women, with their focus on connections rather the heirarchies.
      2. The postmodernist critique -- scientific observations and models are certainly colored by our mental models and consciousness -- perhaps there is no scientific reality.


    1. Novels
    2. Autobiographies
    3. Biographies of groups
    4. Biographies of individuals


    1. General
    2. Scientific

    E-mail me at:, especially if you have suggestions for other references or had trouble with any of the links.

    Last revision June 2000



    1. Web Sites

        A General and Introductory Sites

      1. The Ethics Center for Engineering and Science at Case Western Reserve (CWRU), with engineering case studies, ethical codes of organizations and corporations, essays on or by moral leaders, diversity discussion, educational materials, etc. This is a terrific site. BCDEFG
      2. Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions:
      3. Indiana University Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics in American Institutions:
      4. Virginia Tech (VPISU) Ethics in Science (good chemistry stuff here too) taught by Brian Tissue: The site has links to other sites, essays on ethics in science, links to codes of conduct, etc.
      5. Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Ethics in Science (microbiology graduate program) taught by Francis Macrina:
      6. ABCDG
      7. University of British Columbia:
      8. This is a terrific site with information about ethics in a wide variety of areas.
      9. Ethics Updates, A WWW site on general applied ethics: AB
      10. Duke University has an ethics resource in chemistry with lots of links at; the site is designed to help teachers of ethics in science. BCDE
      11. Evaluation of internet information: AFG
      12. Rochester Institute of Technology,
      13. The National Academies at have discussed a variety of ethical issues. Select Policy and Research Issues for some publications they have made available on line. In addition the National Academies Press at has a lot of stuff, like reports on doctoral scientists and engineers, women scientists, racial and ethnic diversity in the health professions, and making the postdoctoral experience better. When given the opportunity to read these books, select PDF for a version that is legible (if available -- look for it).
      14. Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics at the University of Baltimore emphasizes business and law.

        B Experiments and Publication

      15. Plagiarism in Colleges in the USA, Ronald B. Standler, 2000. Includes the law, cases of students and commercial sources plagiarizing papers, self-plagiarism and links to other sites. AB
      16. German recommendations for self-regulation in science, 1998. BI
      17. Ethics in the Use of the Internet / World Wide Web:
      18. American Chemical Society guidelines for authors, reviewers and editors. BCDE
      19. Plagiarism, copyrights and fraud are addressed by our own library; see

        CDE Peers, Bosses and Employees, Equal Opportunity

      20. Career resources and tools. ACDE
      21. On-line versions of NAS booklets on careers, ethics, etc., including On Being a Scientist. ABCDEFG
      22. Information about women in science from the Association for Women in Science (AWIS). CDE
      23. Women in Biology Internet Launch Page at includes anecdotes, studies, essays and links.
      24. Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering. CDE
      25. A listing of organizations for minorities in science and engineering. CDE
      26. Links to lots of sites on women and minorities in science and engineering.CDE
      27. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) keeps an on-line page on careers in science that includes annual reports on the status of women and/or minorities in science. CDE
      28. The American Chemical Society Committee on Minority Affairs lists (and links) to a large number of organizations and programs, most not just chemistry.
      29. Women in Biology Internet Launch Page at includes anecdotes, studies, essays and links.
      30. Essays on copyright law, academic freedom, professional ethics and wrongful discharge, nonconsensual medical experiments on humans, rights of employees by Dr. Ronald B. Standler, Attorney and Physicist at CDEFG

        F Scientists and the Public

      31. Government Accountability Project. whistleblower information. F
      32. National Whistleblowers Center, also focussed on government. F
      33. The whistleblowers' home page by Jim D'Elia, for federal government workers. F
      34. Nuclear Information and Resource Service. I learned about this site when they solicited a donation from me and I am not sure of their scientific credentials. They are a watchdog for nuclear power plants, their suppliers and waste disposal. F
      35. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FG
      36. Revealing junk science at Some free stuff and some to purchase. Current rather than archival. FG
      37. Revealing bad astronomy, especially in the movies at
      38. The Communitarian Summit has an interesting paper on disarmament.

        G Biology, Medicine, Computer Science, Engineering

      39. Genentech's Activities Exchange has a terrific site on Bioethics with materials suitable for high school courses discussing basic ethical frameworks, genetic testing and engineering. AG
      40. Eugenics: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory DNA Learning Center in New York has an historical exhibit about eugenics which is partly documented in their web site at
      41. Computer Ethics at Southern Connecticut State University G
      42. Typical rules for animal and human subjects, from the University of Minnesota; also adacemic misconduct, secrecy, etc. BCDEFG
      43. Mapping the Icelandic Genome -- issues and practicalities. Anthropology and biology. G
      44. University of British Columbia's Bioethics Site which includes recommended movies and books. G
      45. National Association for Biomedical Research has a lot of information about us of animals in research. G
      46. Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research has publications, conferences and other resources. FG
      47. Genetics and public policy issues are part of the Information Resource on Ethics and Human Genetics site at NIH.
      48. The University of Chicago has a lot of links on medical ethics.
      49. The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science has a nice web site on the use of animals in research and the committees (IACUC) that evaluate research protocols.
      50. Cloning, Right or Wrong is informative about the science and the issues on both sides.
      51. The Center for Ethics and Toxics explores inadvertent or at least unannounced human exposures to pesticides as well as known ones.
      52. The Ethics of using Medical Data from Nazi Experiments at the Jewish Law Site
      53. Bioethics Resources on the Web, a site prepared by NIH with loads of links.
      54. Need more information? Use the National Reference Center for Bioethics Information at Georgetown University
      55. Bioethics Discussion Pages, moderated by Bernstein -- articles about death, cloning, etc. with a strongly medical approach.

      56. Texas Tech Murdough Center for Engineering Professionalism G
      57. Texas A&M (TAMU) Engineering Ethics (this site has specific real examples and essays):
      58. Web Clearinghouse for Engineering and Computing Ethics at North Carolina State Univ. provides links to many other sites. G
      59. What is it like to be a woman engineer? Find out from the Society for Women Engineers. They also have an "Ask an Engineer" page.
      60. The Online Center for Ethics in Engineering and Science at Case Western Reserve Univ. has a big collection of information and links, including stories of moral leaders, ethics codes and engineering case studies.

        H Environment

      61. See the powerful collection of on-line information on pollution at EPA GH
      62. Check out Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, a very informative site showing some of the results of whistleblowing, among other things. DEH
      63. Some environmental organizations you might be interested in are: The Nature Conservancy (one of my favorites) which buys endangered habitats; Environmental Defense, a collaboration of lawyers and scientists; the Earth Day Network and Grist Magazine; Sierra Club; Earthwatch, which provides opportunities for the public to join research projects.
      64. A nice reading list in environmental ethics at Washington State University, along with some other interesting environmental readings. H

        I Codes of Ethics for Scientists web sites are below.

    2. Internet Lists

      To sign up for an internet list, send a message to the address given which consists solely of: SUBSCRIBE 'NAMEOFLIST' 'YOURNAME'. Below are a couple of interesting 'NAMEOFLIST's and their addresses:

      1. SCIFRAUD (specializes in fraud and related misconduct; often has intense discussions by individuals who have been victims of fraud or other misconduct)
      2. AAASEST (general and philosophical, more sedate)
      3. Geo-Ethics,, a listserver of the Association of American Geographers.

    3. Organizations, Societies, Institutes and Short Courses
      1. Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, Indiana University, 410 North Park Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405. An annual meeting and a newsletter, access to the membership list.
      2. The Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions, Indiana University, 410 North Park Ave., Bloomington, IN 47405
      3. Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616-3793. An interesting newsletter with commentary on professional ethics in various fields, legal issues, etc., and workshops, for example, on using case studies in teaching ethics.
      4. Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and the Law Program and Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, AAAS, 1200 NY ave NW, 20005
      5. Center for the Study of Ethics in Society, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI
      6. The National Institute for Engineering Ethics at was created by the National Society of Professional Engineers. Their site has a lot of information, a bibliography and links -- even an ethics test. It is housesd at the Murdough Center at Texas Tech.
      7. Cecil and Ida Green Center for the Study of Science and Society at the University of Texas at Dallas, P.O. Box 830688, Mail Station AD13, Richardson, TX 75083-0688.
      8. Association for Women in Science, AWIS, 1200 New York Ave., NW, Suite 650, Washington, DC 20005
      9. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, 4700 W. Lake Ave., Glenview, IL 60025-1485. They have an annual meeting - the 1999 meeting was also a Duke University continuing education program for doctors.
      10. National Organization of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers, P. O. Box 77040, Washington, DC 20023, 1-800-776-1419. Annual meeting.
      11. National Society of Black Engineers.
      12. National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, 3 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001
      13. American Indian Science and Engineering Society. Its annual meeting applies American Indian cultural structure to science and has a large career / job fair component. Health and engineering are the major scientific interests.
      14. Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science.
      15. The Ethics Center, Utah Valley State College, operates training courses in ethics across the curriculum, including science.
      16. Dr. James Dale Ethics Center, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555.
      17. National Institutes of Health, (Public Health Service), Office of Research Integrity
      18. Ethics Institute, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755,, runs a summer institute on ethical, legal and social implications of the human geneome project for faculty.
      19. University of Wisconsin
      20. Science and Subjects, a Web-based seminar funded by NIH and run by the Poynter Center. Applicants are screened and the limited number of participants has a face-to-face meeting followed by e-mail and web interactions.
      21. Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research is primarily interested in medical ethics, at
      22. Foundation for Biomedical Research at has information about animal and human subjects.
      23. The Union of Concerned Scientists was originally started to lobby against further development of nuclear weapons; they have branched out into environmental problems. See their story at
      24. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) gives an annual Green Chemistry Challenge Award (with deadlines for nominations December 31).
      25. Model Bioethics Institute for faculty in the life sciences.

    4. Journals and Other Periodicals
      1. Science and Engineering Ethics, Opragen Publications, Guildford, Surrey, UK. Table of contents available on line. We get this at TU, starting in January 2000.
      2. On-Line Journal of Ethics, of the Institute of Business and Professional Ethics, which displays peer reviewed articles and the reviews(!) at, in the Ethics Resources section.
      3. TREnds: Teaching Research Ethics, a publication of the Poynter Center at Indiana University for teachers of ethics in science. The Poynter Center also has a one week workshop to train teachers of ethics in science.
      4. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, VPISU
      5. Professional Ethics Report, an informal quarterly from the AAAS Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program. Good short articles. Contact AAAS, 1333 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 or check the web site under science and policy projects. The paper version has been replaced by an on-line publication at
      6. Science, the publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, is focussed on the content of science, but always has news articles about the latest funding squabbles, sexual harrassment, fraud investigations, etc.
      7. Career advice and sociological analyses (sex and race in science, for example) available at the web site.
      8. The Scientist, published by ISI, the source of the Citation Indices. Lots of news about science and news articles about squabbles, fraud -- more free-wheeling than Science. Partly available on line.
      9. Issues in Science and Technology, NAS/NAE/IOM/ National Academies Press, Washington, DC (Univ. of Texas, Dallas) at . A broad range of topics from national political to personal, "to inform public opinion and raise the quality of private and public decision-making". Emphasis on issues internal to science and in the societal impact.
      10. Accountability in Research: Policies and Quality Assurance, Science Publishers, London. Devoted to examining issues related to scientific integrity.
      11. Accountability in Research, Gordon and Breach / Harwood Academic Publishers, (US orders P.O. Box 32160, Newark, NJ 07102). The journal is very successful at presenting all sides of controversies and convincing parties on both sides to contribute.
      12. Alas, not even a list of papers is available on line.
      13. Science, Technology and Human Values, MIT Press. Published by the Program on Science, Technology and Public Policy and the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard and the Program in Science, Technology and Society at MIT.
      14. Skeptical Inquirer, Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, Amherst, NY. A journal which focusses on disproving claims of superhuman powers, alien abductions, etc. F
      15. AWIS Magazine, 1200 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20005. Publication of the Association for Women in Science. Articles about discrimination and hints on how to succeed in science.
      16. HYLE - An International Journal for the Philosophy of Chemistry. All issues but the most recent are available on line at Ethics is not the focus but does appear occasionally. Articles are interesting and unusual, with chemistry the focus (most philosophy of science studies are physics only, with the development of quantum theory the major focus).
      17. CQ, the Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics, Cambridge University Press, contains late-breaking and global issues, reviews of other literature, book reviews, case analyses, policy watch, interviews, patients' experiences, etc. G
      18. Environmental Ethics, PO Box 310980, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 or A wide variety of topics and approaches, but more philosophy than science: ethics of terraforming, sustainability, restoration, brownfields and greenfields, stewardship, values.
      19. Business Ethics, P.O. Box 8439, Minneapolis, MN 55408 has reports on the latest corporate good and evil and longer articles on issues in professional ethics.
      20. The On-Line Journal of (Business and Professional) Ethics at
      21. Ethics and Information Technology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Hingham, MA. The social and ethical dimensions of emerging information technology. Table of contents available on line.
      22. Journal of Information Ethics, McFarland and Co, Jefferson, NC. Privacy issues, plagiarism, computer-aided learning, software reliability, free speech on the internet, journalism and the media. Good book reviews for computer ethics. Sample issue on line.


  • Note that not all books and journals are available in the Towson State Library. You can check availability through Victor from any computer on the campus network.

    The letters coding the sections in the course outline - A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I - are ALSO used:

    • in the course schedule, to link it to the outline;
    • in the reference lists, to classify the references by topic;
    • within each reference annotation, to indicate the range of topics for each book and article.

    Course Materials for Ethics in Science

      1. Web sites.
      2. Robin Levin Penslar, Research Ethics: Cases and Materials, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, 1995. This interesting book begins with a brief summary basic ethical theories and some suggestions about ways to teach ethics. The majority of the book is dedicated to sets of case studies about situations raising ethical issues in research, with special emphasis on the natural sciences (mostly biology and biochemistry), psychology and history. The cases are accompanied by questions and discussion. Covers most the major issues encountered in academic research. ABCGH
      3. Stanley G. Korenman and Allan C. Shipp, Teaching the Responsible Conduct of Research through a Case Study Approach: A Handbook for Instructors, American Assoc of Medical Colleges, Washington DC 1994. The book covers all aspects of misconduct in science from a medical perspective, including animal and human subjects and genetic information. ABG
      4. Francis L. Macrina, Research Integrity: An Introductory Text with Cases, ASM Press, Washington, DC 1995. Although the text focuses on the research environment in universities for biomedicine, the principles are broadly applicable: Included are scientific data integrity, mentoring, record-keeping, authorship and peer review, conflict of interest, ownership of data and intellectual property, genetic technology, use of animals and humans in biomedical experimentation. ABCDEG
      5. Edward Erwin, Sidney Gendin and Lowell Kleinman, Ethical issues in scientific research: an anthology, Garland, NY, 1994. Collected for a course like those required by NIH, the articles discuss values, fraud, animal and human experiments, genetic research and political and sociological influences on science. ABCD (already in with a missing author)
      6. Robin Levin Penslar, ed., Research Ethics Cases and Materials, Indiana U. Press, 1995. Covers plagiarism, confidentiality, conflict of interest, fraud, misconduct, reporting of data, human and animal subjects. BCDG
      7. F. Gifford, "Teaching Scientific Integrity", The Centennial Review, 1994, 38, 297 - 314.
      8. Judy E. Stern and Deni Elliott, The Ethics of Scientific Research: A Guidebook for Course Development, Univ. Press of New England, Dartmouth, NH, 1997. A book for potential teachers of ethics in science, with bibliography and videography. AD
      9. R. Downie, "The teaching of bioethics in higher education of biologists", J. Biological Education, 1993, 27, 34 - 38. AG
      10. E. J. Kormondy, "Ethics and values in the biology classroom", The American Biology Teacher, 1990, 52, 403 - 407. AG
      11. Deborah Campero Clark, "Social Issues and Genetic Testing: A Case Study Using Advocacy Groups", J. College Science Teaching", 1997, Sept/Oct, 17 - 20. A description of a teaching method using case studies and student arguing positions regarding what to do about an ability to detect sensitivity to cigarette smoke. AG
      12. Caroline Whitbeck, "Teaching Ethics to Scientists and Engineers: Moral Agents and Moral Problems", Science and Engineering Ethics, 1995, 1(3), 299 - 308. By treating ethical problems like design problems, she avoids the idea that ethical problems are mutiple choice, and impresses upon students that ambiguity persists in both design and moral problems. A
      13. Penny J. Gilmer, "Teaching Science at the University Level: What About the Ethics?", Sci.Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1(2), 173 - 180. A description of a pioneering science, technology and society course which includes misconduct in science, societal impacts, human subjects, etc. ABG
      14. Institute for Chemical Education, Scientific Ethics for High School Students, ICE, Dept of Chemistry, U of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Uses case studies to stimulate discussions about data collection, laboratory safety, computer ethics, working with others. ABCD
      15. Linda M. Sweeting, "Ethics in Science for Undergraduate Students", J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76(3), 369 - 372. A description of this course -- find out why I did it and what's in it for me. ABCDEFG
      16. J. Howard Rytting and Richard L. Schowen, "Issues in Scientific Integrity: A Practical Course for Graduate Students in the Chemical Sciences", J. Chem. Educ., 1998, 75, 1317 - 1320. The scientist in the laboratory, as a reviewer, author, grantee, employer/employee, and citizen. ABCDEF
      17. Joseph F. Bunnett, "The Culture of Chemistry: A Graduate Course", J. Chem. Educ., 1999, 76, 1058 -1061. How to make discoveries, be ethical, deal with mistakes, develop your career in academia or industry. ABCDE
      18. Anne E. Moody and R. Griffith Freeman, "Chemical Safety and Scientific Ethics in a Sophomore Chemistry Seminar", J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1224 - 1225. Another way to include ethics in the curriculm, as part of a seminar course, combined with the very much related issues of safety. AB
      19. Paul M. Treichel, "Ethical Conduct in Science -- the Joys of Teaching and the Joys of Learning", J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1327 - 1329. A series of quizzes with an ethical slant led to creative writing. A
      20. Thomas A. Easton, ed. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology and Society, Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, Ny, 2000. Twos sider presented for each question. Text, internet site and instructor's manual. Topics: science and technology in society, the environment, health, space, the computer revolution and ethics (animals, genetic engineering, tissue sales, cloning). Are there only two sides??? AFG
    1. Introductory and General Books
    2. Philosophy and Ethics

      1. Robert L. Holmes, Basic Moral Philosophy, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1993. Models that have been and are now used by philosophers to understand and codify the moral sense. The historical information included in the chapters on each approach to a fundamental model is helpful. ABCDEF
      2. C. E. Harris, Jr., Applying Moral Theories, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1992. Basic philosophical approaches to resolving ethical dilemmas. Organized by fundamental models and illustrated with modern case studies illustrating complex ethical dilemmas. ABCDEF
      3. Vincent Ryan Ruggiero, Thinking Critically About Ethical Issues, 4th ed, Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View, C, 1996A. This book begins by analyzing feelings, conscience and cultural differences, then discusses criteria for morals, ideals, and responsibility to assemble a rational basis for moral actions and responsibility. It also examines professional ethics codes and hundreds of modern ethical controversies, including some in science and medicine and has a section on how to write about moral issues. IIA,G, IV
      4. Robert Kane, Through the Moral Maze: Searching for Absolute Values in a Pluralistic World, North Castle Books, Pantheon, NY, 1994. An philosophical examination of moral foundations underlying the diversity of culture, including religious, gender, political diversity. A
      5. Sissela Bok, Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Pantheon Books, New York, 1978. A profound and engaging analysis of a subject neglected by the philosophers, who are busy arguing about truth. The reasons for lying are unmasked and the consequences examined. You will never accept expert opinion so easily again, nor will you lie easily to others. ABCDEF
      6. Marcia Bacon, The Moral Status of Loyalty, IIT CSEP ISBN 0-8403-3423-0
      7. John Rajchman, Truth and Eros: Foucault, Lacan and the Question of Ethics, Routledge, 1991. Recommended by another ethics in science instructor. Sounds forbidding. A
      8. Mary F. Belenky, Blythe M. Clinchy, Nancy R. Goldberger and Jill M. Tarule, Women'e Ways of Knowing, Basic Books, New York, 1986. ACD
      9. Nell Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, University of California, Berkeley, 1984. AD
      10. Albert Rothenberg, The Emerging Goddess. The Creative Process in Art, Science and Other Fields, A
      11. Michael Pritchard, On Becoming Responsible, University Press of Kansas, A book that searches for applications of moral principles to ethical issues in everyday life. A
      12. Richard A. Wasserstrom, Today's Moral Problems, Macmillan, NY. An old philosophy text that has excellent discussions of abortion, racism, sexism, punishment, etc. Focussed on the world at large rather than the research environment. A
      13. Mike W. Martin, Everyday Morality: An Introduction to Applied Ethics, Wadsworth Pub. Belmont, CA, 1995. A text for ethics courss with an emphasis on the practical, e.g. character, conduct and ethical theories, respect for others, sexual and caring relationships, animals and the environment. A
      14. Joseph Ellin, Morality and the Meaning of Life: An Introduction to Ethical Theory, Harcourt Brace, 1995. A
      15. Nina Rosenstand, The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics, 2nd ed., Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View, CA. Ethics is introduced with the plots of movies, novels, short stories and TV shows; others reappear in illustrative boxes throughout the book. The book covers the major ethical theories: utilitarianism, Kant's deontology, Aristotle's virtue theory, religion and values, feminist approaches, etc. A
      16. Peter Vardy and Paul Grosch, The Puzzle of Ethics, M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY, 1997. Includes major philosophers, human and animal rights and environmental ethics. A
      17. Judith A. Boss, Ethics for Life: An Interdisciplinary and Multicultural Introduction, Mayfield Press, Mountain View, CA, 1998. This book does more than summarize the views of philosophers through history - it explicitly considers the origins of ethics and whether it is relative to the culture or the religion or is universal. It is in the universality discussion that the concepts of the great philosophers are introduced. A
      18. Anthony Weston, A Practical Companion to Ethics, Oxford Univ Press, 1996. Practical instruction in problem-solving, the kinds of practical intelligence needed to make moral judgements. A
      19. Willima K. Frankena, Ethics, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1988. Excellent basic reference guide to deontological, utilitarian and virtue theories and meta-ethical issues. Very short. A
      20. James Rachels, Elements of Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 1993. Systematic introduction to relativism, subjectivism, egoism, utilitarianism, deontology and virtue, with examples. A
      21. Anthony Weston, A 21st Century Ethical Toolbox, Oxford U Press, 2001. A practical approach to ethics that does not begin with Aristotle but with "The need for open minds (ethics as a learning experience)" and ends with "Integrating environmental values", discussing critical thinking, creativity and putting ethics into action along the way. Intresting readings included. AGH
      22. Edmund G. Seebauer and Robert L. Barry, Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers, Oxford U Press, 2000. From analysis of interior intentions and exterior acts, the book goes on to consider way of resolving ethical conflicts, evaluating moral judgements and finding justice. Advanced topics include how habits affect ethics, resource allocation, public safety / risk and multicultural issues. A
      23. The Nature of Science and the Philosophy of Science

      24. Peter B. Medawar, The Limits of Science, Harper and Row, NY, 1984. AB
      25. Peter B. Medawar, The Art of the Soluble, Methuen, London, 1967. A series of lectures, essays and book reviews; see "Two Conceptions of Science" and "Hypothesis and Imagination". A
      26. John Hatton and Paul B. Plouffe, Science and its Ways of Knowing, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997. A collection of short essays on the nature of science by both scientists and science-watchers, with questions for discussion. A
      27. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed., Chicago U. Press, Chicago, 1962, 1970. This famous book distinguishes normal science (data collection, adding to the evidence) from revolutionary science, in which a complete change in fundamental outlook, or paradigm, occurs. The classical examples of paradigm shift are Newtonian to quantum mechanics, and the origins of the concepts of continental drift and evolution. Chemistry could perhaps claim a paradigm shift in the concept that structure determines reactivity. A
      28. Robert K. Merton, "The Normative Structure of Science", The Sociology of Science, Chicago Univ. Press, 1973. A
      29. Evelyn Fox Keller and Helen E. Longino, eds. Feminism and Science, Oxford Univ Press, 1996. A collection of 17 readings from feminist writers questioning the practice and goals of science. ACDE
      30. Stephen Carey, A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method, Wadsworth, B. Barber and H. Walter, eds, Sociology of Science, Free Press, Glencoe, IL 1962. Readings about the social structure of science, the process of discovery, and the relationship and responsibility of science and society and how science differs from pseudoscience. Aimed at the non-scientist. ABCDEF
      31. Stephen Brush, "Should the History of Science be Rated X?", Science, 1974, 183. AB
      32. Alan Cromer, Uncommon Sense. The Heretical Nature of Science, Oxford U. Press, 1993. An analysis of the history and present state of science, both good and bad, is presented to explain how it works. ABF
      33. Paul R. Gross, Norman Levitt and Martin W. Lewis, eds, The Flight from Science and Reason, New York Academy of Sciences, Johns Hopkins Univ Press, Baltimore, MD 1997. Papers from a conference about the failure of reason to dominate in public judgements. Uneven in focus on the issues, often defensive - the reviewer liked the paper by Goodstein and not much else. AF
      34. Max Perutz, Is Science Necessary?, Oxford Univ. Press, 1991. A collection of essays from a thoughtful and famous pioneer in molecular biology.
      35. W. I. B. Beveridge, Seeds of Discovery: The Logic, Illogic, Seredipity, and Sheer Chance of Scientific Discovery, Beveridge, 1980? AB
      36. Kim Sterelny and Paul E. Griffiths, Sex and Death. An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology, Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1999. The basic unifying principles of biology or the big issues -- the nature of life, genes, speciation, adaptation, biodiversity, etc. -- are considered in the development of a theoretical biology which includes the controversies about such things as nature vs nurture. 456 pp. AG
      37. Mihaly T. Beck and George B. Kauffman, "Scientific Methodology and Ethics in University Education", J. Chem. Educ. 1994, 71, 922 - 924. Personal vs objective knowledge, science as facts and a way of knowing, plus ethics. A
      38. Brian L. Silver, The Ascent of Science, Oxford Univ Press, NY, 2000. From the advertisement: "vivid accounts of major scientific battles and the ways in which science has affected our view of the world and ourselves.. two objectives: to put science in its social perspective and to explain the basic meaning of great scientific discoveries." AF
      39. Peter Pesic, Labyrinth: A Search for the Hidden Meaning of Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 2000. An analysis of the discussions of the relationship of religion, philosophy and science in the 17th century. A
      40. Ethics in Academia and Learning Ethics

      41. Walter J. Deal, "Cheating", J. Chem. Educ. 1984, 61, 797. Questionnaires to students in introductory chemistry courses reveal that 81% have seen cheating in the lab in that course! AB
      42. Donald L. McCabe, "Faculty Resonses to Academic Dishonesty: The Influence of Student Honor Codes", Res. Higher Educ., 1993(5), 34, 647 - 657.
      43. Donald L. McCabe, "The Influence of Situational Ethics on Cheating Among College Students", Sociol. Inquiry, 1992, 62(3), 365 - 374.
      44. Michael Davis, "Ethics Across the Curiculum: Teaching Professional Responsibility in Technical Courses", Teaching Philosophy, 1993, 16(3), 163 - 186.
      45. Jeffrey Kovac, "Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education", J. Chem. Educ., 1996, 73, 926 - 928, and "Ethics in the Science Curriculum", presented at the 1996 Conference on Values in Higher Education, Ethics and the College Curriculum: Teaching and Moral Responsibility, April 11 - 13, 1996. Ethics means: 1, ordinary morality; 2, the study of ethical theory and 3, professional ethics. Professional ethics derives from 2 bargains - internal (among the members of the profession) and external (with society), which include the concept of service. Both bargains depend on trust. Lots of good references. A
      46. Brian P. Coppola and David H. Smith, "A Case for Ethics", J. Chem. Educ., 1996, 73, 33 - 34. A justification and suggestions for integrating ethics into the curriculum in science. A
      47. Penny J. Gilmer, "Teaching Science at the University Level: What about the Ethics?" Sci. Eng. Ethics, 1995, 1(2), 173 - 180. Ethics is incorporated into a course in science, technology and society. A
      48. R. E. Bulger, "The Need for an Ethical Code for Teachers of Basic Biomedical Sciences", J. Medical Education, 1988, 63, 131 - 133. AGI
      49. D. Callahan and S. Bok, eds., Ethics Teaching in Higher Education, Plenum, NY, 1980. What kinds of goals and courses exist elsewhere? A series of articles by a variety of experts, e.g. Thomas Lickona, "What Does Moral Psychology Have to Say to Teachers of Ethics?", A
      50. "Plagiarism" Perspectives on the Professions, CSEP, IIT, Chicago, IL. A whole issue of their newsletter dedicated to this topic, including the composition classroom, law (where it is encouraged?), science. ACDE.
      51. Marego Athans, "Teachers give grading policy an "F": 2 Baltimore County instructors quit over pressure to promote", Baltimore Sun, 1996, August 25, 1A, 4A. Junior teachers judged excellent by their peers quit because they were pressured to improve the grades, either by just adjusting them or by finding alternate ways to teach and evaluate students so that all succeed. A former PTA president supported one, because failing her grandson made everyone aware that he wasn't doing his homework - once he started doing it, he got A's. Was the supervisor unethical in pressuring for grades without performance or the teacher irresponsible for not trying harder? ADE
      52. L. A. Bisbee, "Ethics in the science classroom" J. College Science Teaching, 1994, 24, 132 - 134. A
      53. Patricia Keith-Spregel et al, The Ethics of Teaching: A Casebook, Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, 1993.
      54. A long pamphlet explaining how senior faculty can assist junior scientists develop their careers. Level is pretty superficial and ethics barely mentioned. AD
      55. Sidney Hook, Paul Kurtz, Miro Todorovich, The Ethics of Teaching and Scientific Research, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY 1977.
      56. Sally S. Wright, Publish and Perish, Multnomah, Sisters, OR.
      57. J. Dudley Herron, The Chemistry Classroom - Formulas for Successful Teaching, American Chemical Society, Washington DC 1996. There is a whole chapter on ethics in teaching. ADE
      58. Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend. On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1997. This short booklet advises teachers, especially at the graduate level, on how they can assist students in developing their career. Most of the recommendations seem a bit obvious, but perhaps they needed to be said. ADE
      59. Jeffrey Mervis, "Graduate Educators Struggle to Grade Themselves", Science, 2000, 287, 568 - 570. Graduate progams rate each other by research reputation, but that is not all students need to know to choose a graduate school. How can they be rated on the educational experience of the students? ACDE
      60. Jeff Gottlieb, LA Times, "Web site holds honesty lesson for students", Baltimore Sun, Jan 24, 2000, C1, C4. Professors fight back with a site that allows professors to submit student papers for comparison with the on-line plagiarized papers. AB
      61. The life of a scientist

      62. On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1989. A pamphlet covering many of the basic issues of scientific life. ABC
      63. On Becoming a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research, 2nd Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1995. Second edition of a pamphlet describing the mores of the scientific community. ABC
      64. Jacob Bronowski, Science and Human Values, Messner, NY. 1956. A philosophical yet practical discussion of the origins of values in science and their impact on society. See exp. 75ff, 85. AF
      65. Donald Braben, To Be a Scientist, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK, 1994. The author was responsible for funding highly exploratory research and presents an interesting discussion of strategies of success in research (including choosing a problem) and an analysis of the effect of science on the economy and vice-versa. He tries to show what turns people on about doing science, but his contacts are hardly typical. ABEF
      66. Larry Laudan, Science and Values, U of California Press, Berkeley, A
      67. William T. Lowrance, Modern Science and Human Values, Oxford U Press, NY, 1985. Lots of discussion, but not many real insights, according to the reviewer. A
      68. Keith J. Laidler, To Light Such a Candle: Chapters in the History of Science, Oxford Univ Press, NY, 1998. Case studies in the history of science with attention to the imperfect people that made discoveries and invented technologies, including some women. He connects pure research and applications and show how impossible it would be to predict the outcome of basic research. ACDEF
      69. Robin Dunbar, The Trouble with Science, Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997. The author (an anthropologist) considers the case for science being just another social construction, but apparently gives a good defense of and description of the society of scientists. ABCDEF
      70. Professional Ethics for Scientists

      71. C. Ian Jackson and John Prados, Honor in Science, Sigma Xi, Research Triangle Park, NC 1986. A serious short discussion of basic scientific ethics aimed at junior scientists but a reminder to all. AB
      72. C. I. Jackson and J. W. Prados, "Honor in Science", Amer. Sci., 1983, 71, 462 - 464. Precursor to the book(let). ABC
      73. M. C. LaFollete, ed., Quality in Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1982. ABCDEF
      74. Mike Muller, "Why Scientists Don't Cheat", New Scientist,1977 (June 2), 74, 522 - 523. AB
      75. Richard S. Nicholson, "On Being a Scientist", Science, 1989, 242, 305. A
      76. H. Zuckerman, "Norms and Deviant Behavior in Science", Sci. Technol. and Human Values, 1984, 9, 7 - 13. AB
      77. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, Ethics of Scientific Research, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD 1994. A foundation for consideration of ethical issues specific to science. Scientists have a duty to do research; it ought not to be biased, to endanger unnecessarily people or the environment, to use public funds for profit or to fail to receive informed consent. Research ought to be objective, promote the public good and serve the values of a liberal society. ABDFG
      78. Charles E. Reagan, Ethics for Scientific Researchers, 2nd ed., Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1971. The first part of this book is a summary and criticism of normative ethical theory, meta-ethics, and concepts of freedom. It is clearly written but requires the scientist to learn a lot of philosophy in 70 pages. The second part of the book is a series of short case studies in medicine and psychology with references. The final 60 pages is a good annotated bibliography which refers to a very wide variety of sources, most of which are from the early 1960's. AFG
      79. Bentley Glass, "The Ethical Basis of Science", Science, 1965, 150, 1254 - 1261. A philosophical foundation with some practical examples. ABCDF
      80. Gerald Holton, "Niels Bohr and the Integrity of Science", American Scientist,1986, 74, 237 - 243. ABCDEF
      81. James Woodward and David Goodstein, "Conduct, Misconduct and the Structure of Science", Amer Sci. 1996, 84, 479 - 490. The authors point out the logical inconsistencies in expectations of ideal behavior by scientists, e.g. that scientists should not be motivated by personal gain. They confuse moral standards (which are aspirational) with psychological motivation, in my opinion. Still an anteresting article. ABCDE
      82. Sidney Hook, Paul Kirtz and Miro Todorovich, The Ethics of Teaching and Scientific Research, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1977. ABCDE
      83. C. P. Snow, "The Moral Un-Neutrality of Science", Science Digest, 1961, 49, 19 - 24. He argues that science is not morally neutral and has an obligation to explain the consequences of proposed actions. A
      84. William O. Baker, "The Moral Un-Neutrality of Science", Science, 1961, 133, 261 - 263. Public morality determines what a scientist may and may not do, and scientists need to gain the trust of the public. AF
      85. Lawrence Cranberg, "Ethical Problems of Scientists", Amer. Sci., 1965, 53(3), 303A - 304A. Scientists are urged to examine the ethical codes of other professions and develop one for science by discussion of 10 examples. ABC
      86. Deni Elliott and Judy E. Stern, eds. Research Ethics: A Reader, Univ.Press of New England, Hanover, NH, 1997. An overview with essays, case studies: reporting and funding of research, conflicts of interest, human and animal experiments, data ownership, data sharing, authorship and institutional responsibility for dealing with misconduct. ABCDE
      87. Stephanie Bird, "Setting Ethical Standards in Science: The Role of Science Professionals", AWIS Magazine, 1995, 24(2) 14 - 15. Ifd not scientists, who will? Some examples of ongoing activities. AFI
      88. Seymour J. Garte, "Guidelines for Training in the Ethical Conduct of Scientific Research", Sci. Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1, 59 - 70. A guide to what a young research should know about: breaches of ethics, Data collection, records and ownership, confidentiality, communication, authorship, collaboration, and reporting unethical conduct. ABCDE
      89. Harold Hillman, "Honest Research", Sci. Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1, 49 - 58. Instructions to supervisors, research workers, referees, authors for the design, implemetation, analysis, interpretation and publication of research with maximal intellectual integrity. ABCDE
      90. David B. Resnik, The Ethics of Science, An Introduction, Routledge, New York, 1998.
      91. Ruth E. Bulger, Elizabeth Heitman and Stanley J. Reiser, eds., The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological Sciences, Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993. The ethical basis of science, self-deception, guidelines for authorship, fraud and some specific examples -- a collection of readings with an introduction to each group by the editors. BCDEFG
      92. Jeffrey Kovac, "Professionalism and Ethics in Chemistry", Foundations of Chemistry An analysis of chemistry as a profession based on categories by Stokes -- chemists are primarily in "Pasteur's quadrant", basic research with the purpose of practical applications, requiring moral and ethical commitments akin to those of engineering as well as the research commitment to truth. AF
      93. E. G. Seebauer and R. L. Barry, Fundamentals of Ethics for Scientists and Engineers, Oxford U. Press, 2000. A non-stuffy approach to ethics, with case studies (some analyzed) and very little reference to famous philosophers and lots to practical situations scientists find themselves in, although it includes a section on ethical systems. Not much on ensuring the integrity of the research literature. ABCDEFG
      94. Professional Ethics

      95. Ruth Chadwick, ed,Ethics and the Professions, Ashgate Pub, Brookfield, VT 1994. Examines both theory and practice from perspectives of law, social work, medicine and philosophy. How accountability defines professional ethics and the meaning and finctions of codes of conduct. AEFG
      96. Daryl Koehn, The Ground of Professional Ethics, Routledge, NY, 1994. The professional - client relationship should be a covenant based on trust with good as its goal. Specific topics are addressed such as professional-client privilege using law, medicine and the ministry as examples. AG
      97. Albert Flores, ed, Professional Ideals, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1988. A collection of essays on what it means to be a professional in a variety of fields such as law, education and medicine, plus the importance of codes, collegiality, etc. ABCDE
      98. Joseph R. DesJardins and John J. McCall, Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1990. In addition to a discussion of ethical theory and loyalty, this book discusses worker and public health and safety and may be quite relevant for a science major. ABCDEF
      99. Michael D. Bayles, Professional Ethics, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1989. A text to supplement courses in business and engineering ethics, which discusses a variety of professions. A
      100. H. Margenau, Open Vistas, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT, 1961. Discusses science and human affairs, reason, esthetics and relativity, materialism, determinism and freedom. A
      101. Sandra W. Pyke and Neil McK. Agnew, The Science Game: An Introduction to Research in the Social Sciences, 5th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991. Perhaps not relevant to most biological and physical scientists. A
      102. Peter Sacks, Generation X Goes to College. An Eye-Opening Account of Teaching in Postmodern America, Open Court Publishing, 1996. A professor gives up educational goals to succeed in entertaining his students and thus becoming a success as a professor. Is his characterization of today's students and colleges correct? A
      103. Banks McDowell, Ethics and Excuses: The Crisis in Professional Responsibility, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT, 2000. For professionals in all fields, especially those in business (almost all) - "challenging and provocative, yet sympathetic and reassuring". A

    3. Scientists and their Experiments
      1. Doing and Publishing Science

      2. W. I. B. Beveridge, The Art of Scientific Investigation, 3rd Ed., Vintage Books, NY, 1957. B
      3. E. Emmet Reid, Invitation to Chemical Research, Franklin Pub., Palisade, NJ 1961. AB
      4. Howard M. Kanare, Writing the Laboratory Notebook, American Chemical Society Washington, DC, 1985. An excellent practical guide for how to record and certify your data to ensure that your experiments can be reported accurately. B
      5. Henry H. Bauer, Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1992. The author attempts to debunk the conventional wisdom about what science is and what the public needs to know about it. A
      6. E. Bright Wilson, An Introduction to Scientific Research, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1952. Ethics is not discussed explicitly, but standards for experimental design, execution, analysis, credit and publication are presented in detail - completely relevant to today. ABCD
      7. Peter B. Medawar, Advice to a Young Scientist, Harper and Row, NY, 1979. How to choose a research topic and collaborators; good manners, good science and their rewards; philosophical foundations and implications. Very British and very old-boy. ABCDE
      8. Stephen S. Carey, A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1994. For the non-scientist. Much that is predictable, but some good examples and questions that test your critical skills and estimating ability. ABF
      9. Frederick Grinnell, The Scientific Attitude, 2nd ed., Guilford Press, London/ New York, 1992. How to do science and be a professional scientist, from a cell biologist's point of view. The scientific method is influenced by thought style, scientific social interactions, and the everyday world. Examples of method, ethics and misconduct from biomedical research. Thorough but dry. ABG
      10. D. E. Chubin, "Allocating Credit and Blame in Science", Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1988, 13, 53 - 63. BC
      11. Brian Schrag, ed. Research Ethics: Fifteen Cases and Commentaries, Vol. 1, Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, Bloomington, IN 1997.
      12. Brian Schrag, ed. Research Ethics: Cases and Commentaries, Vol. 2, Association for Practical and Professional Ethics, Bloomington, IN 1998.
      13. Peter Wilmshurst, "The Code of Silence", The Lancet, 1997, 349, 567- 569. He visited some of the labs when scientists (e.g. Slutsky) were actively fabricating data and found that they were not very secretive and that most people were aware that something was amiss, yet other scientists concealed the truth, protected them from exposure to the funding agency or the public. This must change. BC
      14. Publication and Peer Review

      15. "Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research", Acc. Chem. Res. 1994, 27, 179 - 181. Also published in The ACS Style Guide (below). CDF
      16. John C. Bailar, III, et al, the Editorial Policy Committee, Ethics and Policy in Scientific Publication, Council of Biology Editors, Bethesda, MD 1990. A statement of policy and the proceedings of a meeting. GI
      17. Keith Stewart Thomson, "The Literature of Science", Amer. Sci., 1984, 72, 185 - 187. BC
      18. A. G. Wheeler, "The pressure to publish promotes disreputable science", The Scientist, July 10, 1989, 11, 13. BCD
      19. Edward R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT, 1983. This book became an instant classic. It analyzes both excellence and cynical misrepresentation in presentation of data in graphs and tables. Wonderful examples from all ages and all parts of the world and all kinds of publications. A must-read for anyone who has ever created a graph from a computer. BF
      20. Edward R. Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CT, 1990. More examples of excellence in graphic design. Less relevant to science than the 1983 book, but still an inspiration. BF
      21. Edward Tufte. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative, Graphics Press, CT, 1997. This is his third book on representing data efficiently and precisely. This one focusses on representing motion and change and presents examples of excellence, ineffectiveness and disinformation as part of the story. He includes computer representations as well as paper ones this time. BF
      22. Donald Kennedy, On Academic Authorship, Stanford Univ. 1985. Publish or perish? The author, president of Stanford, apparently used federal funds to pay for his wedding reception - and caused an audit of the University (not in the book). C
      23. James S. Dodd, ed., The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC, 1986. Includes copyright information and the Ethical Guidelines for Authors, Editors and Reviewers. BCD
      24. Howard J. Sanders, "Peer Review: How Well Is It Working?", Chem Eng. News, 1982 (Mar 15), 60, 32 - 43. C
      25. Ron Dagani, "New journal forgoes traditional peer review", Chem. Eng. News, 1995 (May 22), 26 - 27. An iconoclast proposes to publish paper based on track record (prior numbers of publications), omitting any peer review (and saving time) and trusting the authors to get it right because they are good. Note that a physics group does this on-line. C
      26. Steven Bachrach et al, "Who Should Own Scientific Papers?", Science, 1998, 281 1459 - 1460. A groups of scientists has formally challenged the insistence of journals on ownership of the copyright of articles they publish using precedent and proposing alternatives. BCDE
      27. Floyd E. Bloom, "The Rightness of Copyright", Science, 1998, 281 1451. Editor Bloom argues that ownership of copyright by journals preserves the literature. BCDE
      28. Drummond Rennie, "Editors and Auditors", New England Journal of Medicine, 1989, 321, 2543 - 2545. An alternative to ensuring the integrity of the scientific literature? CG
      29. Jukka Liedes, "Copyright: Evolution Not Revolution", Science, 1997, 276, 223 - 225. The Internet has made copyright violation so easy internationally that revisions are necessary to treaties. Will any rights to copy anything remain? BF
      30. B. Barber, "Resistance by Scientists to Scientific Discovery", Science, 1961, 134, 596 - 602. How resistant are we to new ideas? AB
      31. Stephen R. Grabard and Paul LeClerc, eds, Books, Bricks and Bytes: Libraries in the Twenty-First Century, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, 1998. A collection of essays to mark the centennial of the NY Public Library has some interesting stuff about how information is likely to be transfered in the future and the implications for ownership. BG
      32. Constance Holden, "NEJM Admits Breaking Its Own Tough Rules", Science, 2000, 287, 1573 and LA Times and J. Bor, "Medical Journal admits, apologizes for ethical lapses", Baltimore Sun, 2000, Feb 24. The New England Journal of Medicine allowed -- encouraged -- medical experts to write articles evaluating protocols for certain diseases without disclosing their significant conflicts of interest. Later articles corrected the problem, listing 20 affiliations with drug companies per author. B
      33. William Schultz, "Science Strikes Deal With Celera Over Paper", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Dec 18, 5-6. Science requires that all DNA data on which papers published in the journal is based be placed in a publically accessible database. However, to gain the rights to publish the human genome work of Celera Genomics, the waived this requirement. The leaders of the public human genome project have announced they will NOT publish in Science as a result. BF
      34. Eliot Marshall, "Storm Erupts over Terms for Publishing Celera's Sequence", Science, 2000, 290, 2042-3. Science's version of the decision to publish with depositing the sequence in a databank "It was a tough call". BF
      35. Sophie Wilkinson "Preprint Policy", Chem. Eng. News, 2001, Jan 15, 10. The editors of the American Chemical Society's journals have agreen that web publication constitutes prior publication and they will not accept papers previously broadcast in this manner, although sharing with selected colleagues is fine. B
      36. Jonathan Krensky, "Don't tease", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Dec 18, 2. The gentleman's agreement to provide details / raw data / materials from published papers is not honored. BF
      37. Eliot Marshall, "A Ruckus Over Releasing Images of the Human Brain", Science, 2000, 289, 1458 - 9. Publishers are now requesting raw data from functional MRI and CT scans be deposited with encryption in a database as part of the conditions for publications and scientists are fuming, as they want to mine their own data further. BF
      38. Lee Rowen, Gane K. S. Wong, Robert P. Lane, Leroy Hood, "Publication Rights in the Era of Open Data Release Policies", Science, 2000, 289, 1881. How do you protect the careers of the producers of data from its mining by others once it is published and deposited in a databank. Some suggestions for qualifiers in the databases, for example, to improve fairness. B
      39. David Malakoff, "Librarians Seek to Block Merger of Scientific Publishing Giants", Science, 2000, 290, 910-911. The two largest private publishers of scientific research (and with the highest prices already) propose to merge to give a company with over 1500 journals, a action which may result in libraries having to cancel more journals because of cost. B
      40. Antonio Galvez, Mercedes Maqueda, Mauel Martinez-Bueno and Eva Valdivia, "Scientific Publication Trends and the Developing World", Amer. Sci., 2000, 88, 526- . An examination of the development of science around the world using publication and citation criteria. BC
      41. Error

      42. Lewis Branscomb, "Integrity in Science", Amer. Sci. 1985, 73, 421 - 423. Self-deception is a bigger problem than fraud. BC
      43. Joseph Jastrow, The Story of Human Error, Appleton-Century-Croft, New York, 1936. B
      44. Daniel W. Hering, Foibles and Fallacies of Science; an account of scientific vagaries, Van Nostrand, New York, 1924. The incidents discussed are "ancient history", including astrology, divination, transmutation of metals. B
      45. Herbert L. Nichols, Science Blundering: an outsider's view, North Castle, Greenwich, CT, 1984
      46. Keith J. Laidler, "Lessons from the History of Science", Accts Chem. Res.1995, 28, 187 - 192. The uneven "progress" of science is illustrated with examples theories accepted in spite of poor correlation with data and the wrong person getting the credit for discoveries. ABC
      47. Gary Taubes, "The (Political) Science of Salt", Science, 1998, 281, 898 - 907. The claim that salt is "bad" for you, is exaggerated. There is little evidence that salt intake is related to increased risk of high blood pressure. The myth is politically entrenched now, and pressure to correct the official advice falls on deaf ears. BG
      48. Charles Sife, "CERN's Gamble Shows Perils, Rewards of Playing the Odds", Science, 2000, 289, 2260-2. Faced with shutdown, CERN scientists discover a new particle ... but they and others can't find it again. Other examples of statistical fluctuations which were thought to be real phenomena, including sopme that were significant to hundreds of sigmas. B
      49. Error or Fraud?

      50. Carl Djerassi, "Basic Research: The Gray Zone", Science, 1993, 261, 972 BCDE
      51. Eliot Marshall, "Secretiveness Found Widespread in Life Sciences", Science, 1997, 276, 525. Interviews revealed reasons that scientists delay publication or do not share samples, mostly to protect their priority, whether for a patent or other financial reasons or for their scientific lead on solving a problem. BCD
      52. Cold Fusion
        1. G. Taubes, Bad Science: The Short Life and Weird Times of Cold Fusion, Random House, NY, 1993. The rush to publicity/publication, the tendency to fall in love with your own theories (but probably not fraud), and university and funding politics are all part of this story, which is not over yet (see articles for updates). BCE
        2. Ron Dagani, "Cold Fusion Believer Turned Skeptic Crusades For More Rigorous Research", Chem. Eng. News, 1995, June 5, 34 - 40. Steven Jones, whose data was more convincing than Pons and Fleischman's, has continued to use better detectors and methods and concludes there is no compelling evidence for electrochemical cold fusion. B
        3. John R. Huizenga, Cold fusion, the scientific fiasco of the century, Oxford U. Press, Oxford & New York, 1994. The author was a strong critic of the possibility of cold fusion from the beginning and has actively campaigned against the fusion interpretation of the unexplained heat in electrochemistry. Peer review was also a big issue here. BC
      53. Richard S. Westfall, "Newton and the Fudge Factor", Science, 1973, 179, 751 - 758. AB
      54. The Cell paper
        1. Judy Sarasohn, Science on Trial: the whistle blower, the accused and the Nobel laureate, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1993. Probably more than you wanted to know about Baltimore, Imanishi-Kari, O'Toole, etc. and whether the data was correctly reported. BCDE
        2. Daniel J. Kevles, "The Baltimore case: a trial of politics, science and character", W. W. Norton, New York, 1998. This book is very sympathetic to Baltimore and would be a good contrast to that by Sarasohn. BCDE
        3. Barbara J. Culliton, "A Bitter Battle over Error", Science, 240, 1720 - 1723; part II: 241, 18 - 21. An interim report on the Imanishi-Kari / Baltimore paper in Cell. B
        4. David Baltimore, "Baltimore's Travels", Issues Sci. Technol., 1989 5(4), 48-54. His version of events.
        5. David P. Hamilton, "The Baltimore Case - in Brief", Science,1991, 253, 24 - 25. B
        6. Richard Stone, "Baltimore Defends Paper at Center of Misconduct Case", Science, 1995, 269, 157. Even though some of the data was taken after the paper was published and the statistics are creative, he claims the conclusions are valid. B
        7. Pamela Zurer, "Nobel Laureates disagree at misconduct hearing", Chem. Eng. News, 1995 (July 3), 6. David Baltimore says sloppy record-keeping is normal at HHS ORI hearing; Gilbert disagrees. B
        8. Rebecca Rawls, "Imanishi-Kari Cleared" Chem. Eng. News, 1996, July 1, 6 - 7. B
        9. Jocelyn Kaiser and Eliot Marshall, "Imanishi-Kari Ruling Slams ORI", Science, 1996, 272, 1864 - 1865. B
        10. Pamela Zurer, "In scientific misconduct cases, justice isn't always blind", Chem. Eng. News, 1996, June 24, 31. A commentary on this case which points out that once again the famous and powerful are given more access and better treatment than the powerless, like students and post-doctoral fellows. BCDE
        11. Jock Friedy, "How Congressional Pressure Shaped the "Baltimore Case'" Science, 1996, 273, 873 - 875. Congressmen gain the limelight while justice is subverted for all. BCD
      55. Donald Hollis, Abusing Cancer Science, Strawberry Fields Press, Chelahis, WA, 1987. Hollis is the fly on the wall observing the struggle over priority in the development of NMR imaging, especially to detect cancer. BC
      56. Janet Raloff, "Dowsing Expectations", Sci. News, 1995, 148, 90 - 91. Is there a scientific basis for dowsing? BC
      57. Caroline Whitbeck, "Trust and Trustworthiness in Research", Sci. Engin.Ethics, 1995, 1 (4), 403 - 416. Science and society must be able to trust the data and interpretation in the scientific literature. Negligence and recklessness in collecting and interpreting data, and (not) giving credit, and lesser betrayals, also undermine trust and trustworthiness. BC
      58. Stephanie J. Bird and David E. Housman, "Trust and the Collection, Selection, Analysis and Interpretation of Data: A Scientist's View", Sci Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1, 371 - 382. A wide variety of pressures affect the reproducibility and trustworthiness of research, including technique, records, models, wishful thinking, etc. A case study helps provide a framework for this article. BCDE
      59. Hal Hellman, Great Feuds in Science: Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever Wiley, New York, 1999. These are all very old feuds -- it would be nice to have a more recent colelction, since the norms of scientific practice and collegiality have changed quite a bit since Galileo. The author thinks the feuds helped science, but could disagreements without the fieuds work even better? BC
      60. Cold Fusion, series of articles by Scott Chubb, Martin Fleischmann, Stephen E. Jones, David Goodstein, F. Scaramuzzi, J. O'M Bockris, George H. Miley, and David J. Nagel, Accountability in Research, 2000, 8, 1 - 162. Authors were and are experimenters and analysts of the evidence for and against cold fusion; most experienced persecution by other scientists and journalists for even continuing the research. BCD
      61. Nicholas J. Turro, "Paradigms Lost and Paradigms Found: Examples of Science Extraordinary and Science Pathological - and How to Tell the Difference", Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 2000, 39, 2255 - 2259. A discussion of some classic cases of new theories and observations, self-deception and error, and suggestions for how to detect the pathology of multiplying errors. BF
      62. David Goodstein, "In Defense of Robert Andrews Millikan", Amer. Sci., 2001, 89, 54 - 60. It has been know for some years that Millikan reported in his paper on the oil drop experiments that data on all drops was included, when his notebook reveals that is not the case. He may also have mistreated the student whose project it was. This article gives refeerences to less positive analyses too. B
      63. Robert L. Park, Voodoo Science: the Road from Foolishness to Fraud, Oxford University Press, 2000. An account of a variety of pathological and fraudulent scientific theories and experimental results, written by a physicist. BF
      64. Fraud and Misconduct

      65. W. Broad & N. Wade, Betrayers of the Truth, Simon & Schuster, NY 1982. Some famous scientists of the past were less than candid about their observations. BC
      66. Stephen J. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, W. Norton, NY, 1981. Preconceived results and carelessness continues to distort the study of human intelligence as a function of genetics and environment. The second edition (1996) also contains commentary on The Bell Curve. BG
      67. Alexander Kohn, False Prophets: fraud, error and misdemeanor in science, Blackwell, NY, 1986. A large number of examples of fraud, theft, slander, and misrepresentation in science are discussed thoroughly from the scientist's point of view. He suggests other interpretations for some famous cases than outright fraud. BCDEF
      68. Robert Bell, Impure Science: fraud, compromise and political influence in scientific research, Wiley, New York, 1992. Science can hurt the public and vice-versa. But the main point of the book is the influence of money (and fame) on the conduct of science. It's not clear the author correctly identifies the villains - he certainly makes it look as if scientists are a greedy, unscrupulous bunch. BF
      69. Marcel LaFollette, Stealing into Print: Fraud, Plaigiarism and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing, Univ of California Press, Berkeley, 1992. The book discusses all the ways the scientist can get credit in the scientific literature that might be deceitful, including mistakes, frauds, misappropriation of data and credit, etc. Provides an excellent discussion of the process by which scientific information becomes public. BCDE
      70. The Dark Side of Science, AAAS Pacific Division, California Academy of Science, 1983. A collection of 13 papers on fraud. B
      71. Arthur Koestler, The Case of the Midwife Toad, Hutchinson, London, 1971. This classic case of biological fraud attempts to prove that learned behavior can be inherited. BG
      72. Joseph Hixson, The Patchwork Mouse, Anchor Press, Garden City, NJ, 1976. This tale of blatant fabrication in genetics research reminds me of some of the things students have done. BCDG
      73. Darwin Cheney, ed., Ethical Issues in Research, A selection of articles on misconduct in performance and authorship of research, conflict of interest, research on humans, embryos, animals. BG
      74. David J. Miller and Michel Hensen, eds., Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, NY 1992. The book describes the ethical principles of scientific research, then examines some specific cases of fraud - Burt, Absalti, Darsee - analyzing the psychological approaches to understanding why a scientist might falsify data. Final articles examine the broader impact and ways to minimize fraud in the sciences. ABCDG
      75. Bette Hileman, "Misconduct in Science Probed", Chem. Eng. News, 1997, June 23, 24 - 25. Discusses the weaknesses in institutional procedures, especially confidentiality and rules of evidence (poor agreement here since the investigations are not legal proceedings), and restoration of the reputations of the wronfully acused. BCDE
      76. Eugene Braunwald, "Commentary: On Analyzing Scientific Fraud", Nature, 1987 (Jan 15), 325, 215 - 216. He blew the whistle on a junior colleague, and discusses the ability of the peer review system to deal with fraud. BCDE
      77. J. P. Tangney, "Fraud will out - or will it?", New Sci., 1987, Aug. 6, 62 - 63. B
      78. W. J. Broad, "Fraud and the Structure of Science", Science, 1981, 212, 137 - 141. B
      79. D. E. Chubin, "Misconduct in Research: an issue of science policy and practice", Minerva, 1985, 23 (Summer), 175 - 202. B
      80. H. Zuckerman, "Norms and Deviant Behavior in Science", Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1984, 9(1), 7 - 13. BC
      81. Pamela S. Zurer, "Misconduct in Research", Chem. Eng. News, 1987, Apr. 13, 10 - 17. A summary in the midst of a busy season of reports; interviews with colleagues of errant scientists. BC
      82. Judith P. Swazey, Melissa S. Anderson and Karen S. Lewis, "Ethical Problems in Academic Research", Amer. Scientist, 1994, 81, 542 - 553. Questionnaires to faculty and students in chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology and sociology revealed that 8% had observed falsification by faculty and 14% had observed falsification by students; among other things, they asked about misuse of funds and discrimination. In addition, the paper is printed in poorly contrasting colors so that it cannot be copied in black and white, not even legally. BCD
      83. Sharoni Shafir and Donald Kennedy, "Research Misconduct: Media Exaggerate Results of a Study", The Scientist, June 22, 1998. Every magazine report on the Swazey et al paper portrays the results as proving that fraud is very common in science, and the paper itself presents its conclusions in a faulty way. For example, only about 55% of the surveys were returned - were people more likely to return the survey if they had observed fraud? And if 20 people in one department had observed fraud, was it one example or 20? BCD
      84. Melissa S. Anderson, Karen S. Lewis and Jason Earle, "Disciplinary and Departmental Effects on Observations of Faculty and Graduate Student Misconduct", J. Higher Educ., 1994, 65(3), 331 - 350. The same study as Swazey et al, focussing on the climate associated with the misconduct. BCD
      85. Efraim Racker, "A View of Misconduct in Science", Nature,1989 (May 11), 339, 91 - 93. BCDE
      86. I. Langmuir, "Pathological Science: scientific studies based on non-existent phenomena", Speculations Sci. Technol., 8(2), 77 - 94; Physics Today 1989 (Oct), 36, 47. Widely reprinted - N-rays and other wonders. B
      87. W. Stewart and N. Feder, "The Integrity of the Scientific Literature", Nature, 1987, 325, 207 - 214. Studies a very small segment of the biomedical literature with surprising results. B
      88. Eugene Garfield, "What Do We Know about Scientific Fraud and Other Forms of Intellectual Dishonesty in Science?, Part 1. The Spectrum of Deviant Behavior in Science", Current Contents, 1987 (6 Apr) 14,, 3 - 7; "Part 2. Why Does Fraud Happen and What Are Its Effects?", Current Contents, 1987 (13 Apr) 15,, 3 - 10. Bird's eye view of an editor and publisher. B
      89. C. Manwell and C. M. Ann Baker, "Honesty in Science: a partial test of a sociobiological model of the social structure of science", Search, 1981, 12(6), 151 - 159. B
      90. Edward J. Hackett, "A Social Control Perspective on Scientific Misconduct", J. Higher Educ., 1994. 65(3), 242 - 260. After considering the person psychological explanations for misconduct, the author proposes some social controls that would minimize the potential gain and provide better monitoring. BCD
      91. Stephen Poliakoff, Blinded by the Sun, A play about a young researcher who claims to have invented a device for producing unlimited amounts of energy - did he cheat and, if so, will he be caught? BC
      92. Susan Feigenbaum and David Levy, "The Technological Obsolescence of Scientific Fraud", Rationality and Society, 1996, 8(3), 261 - 276. Biased research should be narrowly replicable but fraud is not replicable at all. Sanctions should distinguish these cases. B
      93. Robert J. Petersdorf, "The Pathogenesis of Fraud in Medical Science", Annals of Internal Medicine, 1986, 104, 252 - 254. BFG
      94. Patricia Wolf,"Pressure to Publish and Fraud in Science", Annals of Internal Medicine 1986, 104, 254 - 256. BFG
      95. M. C. LaFollette, Ethical Misconduct in Research Publication: An Annotated Bibliography, National Science Foundation, 1988. BCDE
      96. Integrity and Misconduct in Research. Report of the Commission on Research Integrity, US Dept of Health and Human Services, PHS, 1995. This somewhat controversial report seekds to define research misconduct more explicitly than previous documents, as misappropriation, interference and misrepresentation. Other forms of professional misconduct are obstruction of misconduct investigations and noncompliance with research regulations. B
      97. Martin Gardner, Science: Good, Bad and Bogus. B
      98. Martin Enserink, "Fraud and Ethics Charges Hit Stroke Drug Trial", Science, 1996, 274, 2004-5. An European study of 7000 patients in 13 countries is questioned because of data falsification by one physician for 400 patients and improper use of placebos. BG
      99. Levy and Feigenbaum, The Technical Obsolescence of Scientific Fraud
      100. Eleanor G. Shore, "Effectiveness of Research Guidelines in Prevention of Scientific Misconduct", Sci Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1(4), 383 - 387. Clear guidelines should help reduce the chance that flawed research is published, especially if the result of sloppiness or expediency, by cannot prevent all instances of misconduct, expecially that with intention to deceive. B
      101. Peter Wilmshurst, "The Code of Silence" The Lancet, 1997, 349, 567 - 569. Contrary to the claims of their colleagues and employers, the colleagues of the most notorious modern perpetrators of data-fabrication did know about the misconduct and chose to gossip about it instead of doing something about it. He visited some of the labs when scientists (e.g. Slutsky) were actively fabricating data and found that they were not very secretive and that most colleagues were aware that something was amiss, yet they concealed the truth, protected them from exposure to the funding agency or the public. This must change. BCD
      102. "Researchers who break the rules could be fined", Associated Press, in Baltimore Sun, May 24, 2000, 3A. HHS proposes to fine the individual scientist, the institution and its IRB when medical researchers commit fraud. IRB's will certainly do more monitoring during clinical trials if this proposal is effected. BG
      103. Richard Smith, "Time to face up to research misconduct", Brit. Med. J., 1996, 312, 789 - 790. Reports on recent convicted scientific frauds in Britain. BG
      104. Stephen Lock, "Lessons from the Pearce affair: handling scientific fraud", Brit. Med. J., 1995, 310, 1547 - 8. An example of a speedy (9 months) resolution (conviction) of a claim of misconduct with lessons to be learned. BG
      105. S. Lock and S. Wells, eds. Fraud and misconduct in medical research, 2nd ed., BMJ Publishing Group, London, 1996. A collection of stories about deliberate misrepresentation, including a list of 70 documented cases. BG
      106. L. Grayson, Scientific Deception, British Library, London, 1995.
      107. Peter Wilmshurst, "An investigation by the ABPI", The Lancet, 1987, Jan 10, 104. A dispute about drug trials by sterling Winthrop reveals the weakness of the system to prevent fraud in drug trials, or correct the record of a drug's "success". BG
      108. Michael Hagmann, "Cancer Researcher Sacked got Alleged Fraud", Science, 2000, 287, 1901-2. W. Bezwoda had success with cancer treatments too good to be true. South Africa. BG
      109. Robert G. Petersdorf, "The Pathogenesis of Fraud in Medical Science", Ann. Internal Med., 1986, 104, 252 - 4. Yes indeed, the pre-med cheating syndrome (88% of students at 2 medical schools had cheated as pre-meds!) carries over into real life, and the competition and anonymity from the size of science only makes it easier. BG
      110. Eliot Marshall "The Misconduct Case that Won't Go Away" Science, 1999, 286, 1076-7 and "Fired Researcher Is Rehired and Refired" 2000, 287, 1183-4. Marguerite Kay was fired for manipulating data but has appealed through the courts and has a lot of faculty support. BCD
      111. Karl Sabbagh, A Rum Affair: A True Story of Botanical Fraud, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2000. The author examines the evidence that a famous scholar, who had exclusive access to the island of Rum, invented observations of plants to prove that the island was spared the ice age. Now that others have access, it appears that the key plants were transplanted from the professor's garden. A good mystery. BG
      112. A Research Conference on Research Integrity, Office of Research Integrity, DHHS (November 2000). 200 scientists wereinvited to evaluate the frequency of misconduct found a range: 1 documented cases of fraud per 10,000 scientists per year, 1 of 10 audits found major deviations and 1 of 2 students are willing to fake data. Makes you think about the future. Short report in Science, 2000, 290, 1662-3. B
      113. Cheryl Hogue, "Lab Employees Indicted", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Oct 2, 11. Lab employees (Intertek Testing Services Environmental Labs) face criminal charges for failing to calibrate instruments according to EPA protocols, and altering data top make it appear as if they had. BFH
      114. "Clinical Crime", Science, 2000, 289, 1871. VP of BioCryst Pharmaceutical and others conspired to make their new drug to treat skin conditions appear effective, sentenced to three years in prison. BFG
      115. Gretchen Vogel, "FDA Moves Against Penn Scientist", Science, 2000, 290, 2049-51. The head of the gene therapy project that killed a teenager after enrolling ineligible patients and administering drugs that had been shown to cause serious harm to test primates and people may be banned fromconducting any more clinical trials. BG


      116. Michael Thompson, "Statistics: The Curse of the Analytical Class", Analyst. 1994, 119, 127N. An examination of the literature of analytical chemistry, which uses statistics routinely, reveals a high proportion of inappropriate applications and conclusions. B
      117. Cynthia Crossen, Tainted Truth: The Manipulation of Fact in America, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1994. A Wall Street J. reporter calls attention to the misuse of statistics and other numerical data by scientists and the media, some of which constitute fraud (especially omission of inconventient data, deceptive surveys) and the imposition of ideology upon data (e.g. The Bell Curve). Alas, she does not recognize or admit that there might really be uncertainty, e.g. regarding the effects of second-hand smoke. BF
      118. John C. Bailar, III, "Science, Statistics and Deception", Ann. Int. Med. 1986, 104, 259 - 260. B
      119. Irvin Geis, How to Lie with Statistics, Norton, 1954. This classic is treasured by statistics buffs everywhere. BF
      120. A. K. Dewdney, 200% of Nothing, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1993. An analysis of the lies, damned lies, etc. told with statistics and other mathematics, illustrating inability to understand percentages, ratios and basic mathematical logic, in addition to statistics - with explanations. BF
      121. Charmont Wang, Sense and Nonsence of Statistical Inference: Controversy, Misuse and Subtlety, Marcel Dekker, NY, 1993.
      122. Darrell Huff, How to Lie with Statistics, Norton, NY, 1996. Be smart or be a sucker. This book tells you how companies try to defraud you by helping you to misread data. BF
      123. David B. Resnik, "Statistics, Ethics and Research: An Agenda for Education and Reform", Accountability in Research, 2000, 8, 163 - 188. Some examples of inappropriate use of statistical methods and a plea for ensuring the ethics is included in experimental design and taught to junior scientists. BDFG
      124. Do we always intend to deceive, just a little?

      125. Robert G. Bergman, "Irreproducibility in the Scientific Literature: How Often Do Scientists Tell the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth?", Perspectives on the Professions, 1989 (Jan), 8, 2 - 3. BCF
      126. "Do You Ever Fake a Research Result?", Ind. Chem., 1987 (Feb.) AB
      127. Peter B. Medawar, "Is the scientific paper fraudulent? yes; it misrepresents scientific thought", Sat. Rev. 1964 (Aug. 1), 42 - 43. AB
      128. "Error and Fraud in the Lab", Ind. Chem., 1987 (May), 84. B
      129. Jed Z. Buchwald, The Creation of Scientific Effects, The problematic relationship between scientific theory and experiment. B
      130. Standards for scientific integrity / Defining and punishing misconduct

      131. Donald E. Buzzelli, "A Definition of Misconduct in Science: A View from NSF", Science, 1993, 259, 584 - 648. BE
      132. Margot O'Toole, "Scientists Must Be Able to Disclose Colleagues' Mistakes without Risking Their Own Jobs or Financial Support", Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989 (Jan 25), 34, A44. CDE
      133. Daniel Andersen, Lis Attrup, Nils Axelsen & Povl Riis, Scientific Dishonesty and Good Scientific Practice, Danish Medical Council, Copenhagen, 1992. How science is done, how misconduct is defined, investigated and punished, with mostly medical examples. BG
      134. Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, National Academy Press, Washington, DC 1992. A report prepared by a broadly based committee of scientists identifying areas of threat to scientific integrity and possible solutions. Good bibliography. They recommend:
      135. 1. Individual scientists and officials of research institutions should accept formal responsibility for ensuring the integrity of the research process. They should foster an environment, a reward system, and a training process that encourage responsible research practices.
      136. 2. Scientists and research institutions should integrate into their curricula educational programs that foster faculty and student awareness of concerns related to the integrity of the research process. BCD
      137. Albert H. Teich and Mark S. Frankel, Good Science and Responsible Scientists, AAAS, Washington, DC 1992. A booklet summarizing the conclusions of a National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists with recommendations as to who should take what action. BF
      138. Mark S. Frankel, Science, Engineering and Ethics, AAAS, Washington, DC 1988. A collection of symposium papers and discussions. BCF
      139. John T. Edsall, Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, AAAS, Washington, DC, 1975. BF. A booklet summarizing discussions of the AAAS Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility. It includes science and values, data integrity, theft of ideas, informed consent, potential forbidden research areas, secrecy, responsibility to the public. BCF
      140. Research Ethics, Alan R. Liss, Inc., NY, 1983. A series of interesting readings. B
      141. Project on Scientific Fraud and Misconduct, Reports on Workshops 1,2, and 3, AAAS, Washington DC, 1989. Invited papers from the AAAS/ABA National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists. B
      142. Pamela S. Zurer, "Commission On Research Integrity Reshaping Definition of Misconduct", Chem. Eng News, 1995 (July 3), 14 - 16. B
      143. John M. Braxton and Alan E. Bayer, "Perceptions of Research Misconduct and an Analysis of their Correlates", J. Higher Educ., 1994, 65(3), 351 - 372. A survey of 300 biochemists examined their attitudes about taking action regarding scientific wrongdoing and found a variety of reasons for their reluctance - people of higher status were more likely to take action. BCD
      144. Gabor B. Levy, "Scientific Misconduct", Amer. Laboratory, 1996, May, 6, 8. This editorial proposes to define scientific misconduct narrowly, excluding things like misuse of funds, sexual harrassment, etc. which are misconduct for anyone. B
      145. P. J. Greene, J. S. Durch, W. Horowitz and V. S. Hooper, "Policies for Responding to Allegations of Fraud in Research", Minerva, 1985, 23(2), 203 - 215.
      146. N. Steneck, "Research Universities and Scientific Misconduct: History, Policies and the Future", J. Higher Educ., 1994, 65(3), 210 - 230.

    4. Scientists and their Peers
      1. Colleagues in Science

      2. Peter J. Feibelman, A Ph.D. is NOT Enough!, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1993. A useful guide to becoming a successful research scientist; ethics not mentioned per se but implicit is the interpersonal contracts. CDE
      3. Carl J. Sindermann, The Joy of Science: Excellence and its Rewards, Plenum, NY, 1985. A witty look at how elite scientists spend their time and energy. C
      4. Carl J. Sindermann, Winning the Games Scientists Play, Plenum, NY, 1982. A gently humorous and nontechnical look at how ethical and unethical social interactions between scientists affect their satisfaction and success. CDE
      5. C. J. Sindermann, Survival Strategies for New Scientists, Plenum, NY, 1987. The book is focussed exclusively on success strategies in the research university environment. CDE
      6. Robert K. Merton, "The Matthew Effect in Science", Science, 1968, 159, 53 - 63. Also reprinted in his book, The Sociology of Science, U. of Chicago Press, 1873, 439 - 459. "To those that have, more will be given" - and this is the way science progresses best, he claims.
      7. Natalie S. Glance and Bernardo A. Huberman, "The Dynamics of Social Dilemmas", Sci. Amer. 1994, March, 76 - 81. Individuals in groups choose between selfish and cooperative behaior, and will switch suddenly to cooperation - this can lead to good and bad actions by the group. ABFH
      8. Charles Officer and Jake Page, The Great Dinosaur Extinction Controversy, Helix Books, Reading, MA, 1996. Several factors probably contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs over thousands of years. Why then do you only hear about the asteroid impact theory? The manipulations of the information received by the public will make you realize how subtle peer mistreatment can be. Also see the WWW site of Dewey McLean, who was unfortunate enough to defend the experimental evidence for volcanism. BCDEF
      9. Keith Stewart Thomson, "Anatomy of the Extinction Debate", Amer. Sci. 1988, 76, 59 - 61. An analysis of the debate as a paradigm for how theories come to be accepted. BCDEF
      10. William Lanouette, "The Odd Couple and the Bomb", Sci. Amer., 2000, Nov, 104 - 109. Fermi and Szilard were very different in their world views, work styles and personalities, but were able to collaborate successfully. B
      11. Credit and Publication

      12. Marcia Angell, "Publish or Perish: A Proposal", Annals of Internal Medicine, 1986, 104, 261 - 262. BCD
      13. Edward J. Huth, "Irresponsible Authorship and Wasteful Publication", Annals of Internal Medicine, 1986, 104, 257 - 259. BCD
      14. Jeffrey Mervis, "Bitter Suit over Research Work Asks 'Who Deserves the Credit?", The Scientist, 1989, 3(8), 1, 4-5. C
      15. Eliot Marshall, "Trial Set to Focus on Peer Review", Science, 1996, 273, 1162 - 1164. Was data stolen when research funded by Cistron was peer-reviewed by an employee of Immunex? Even if it was, did the authors give up their rights to secrecy and exclusivity by submitting the paper? BC
      16. Jenny McFarland & MIT Association for Postdoctoral Women, Authorship on Publications, in Handbook for Entering Postdoctoral Associates and Fellows, MIT, pp 8-9. C
      17. Eliot Marshall, "Dispute Splits Schizophrenia Study", Science, 1995, 268, 792 - 794. A pricipal scientist who was booted out of a lab is published his work anyway, and including his colleagues' contributions without their knowledge and they responded by publishing different versions. C
      18. Gary Taubes, "Plagiarism Suit Wins; Experts Hope It Won't Set a Trend", Science,1995, 268, 1125. A woman scientist sued other scientists on behalf of the Federal government (qui tam) for making false claims and stealing intellectual property (her dissertation). C
      19. Mary Frank Fox, "Scientific Misconduct and Editorial and Review Processes", J. Higher Educ., 1994, 65(3), 298 - 309. The review process can assist in the reduction of errors and fraud in publications, but cannot prevent them. BC
      20. Derek J. De Solla Price, "Ethics of Scientific Publication", Science, 1964, 144, 655 - 657. He discusses freedom to publish, credit, citations, retrieval and availability and scholarship. BCDE
      21. Elizabeth Pennisi, "The Race to the Ribosome Structure", Science, 1999, 285, 2048 - 2051. Jamie H. Cate et al, "X-Ray Crystal Structure of 70S Ribosome Functional Complexes" Science, 1999, 285, 2095 - 2133; Gloria M. Culver et al "Identification of an RNA- Protein Bridge Spanning the Ribosomal Subunit Interface", Science, 1999, 285, 2133 - 2135; additional references to Yonath and Ramakrishnan in the articles. What do you do if you "scoop" the person who has contributed the most to solving a difficult and important problem in science? BCDE
      22. Bruce Agnew, "NIH Eyes Sweeping Reform of Peer Review", Science, 1999, 286, 1074 - 6. A proposal to restructure the committee (study section) system so that it can be evaluated continuously. CDE
      23. Eliot Marshall, "Patent Suit Pits Postdoc Against Former Mentor", Science, 2000, 287, 2399 - 2401. Postdoc sues because her advisor (and university) patents her discovery, but judge rules that the university owned it by virtue of the conditions of employment, i.e. her contract. Letters 288, 1173-4 suggest that her case is not so clear- cut since she does have her name on one patent. CDE
      24. John H. Barton, "Reforming the Patent System", Science, 2000, 287, 1933 - 4. The number of patent lawayers has increased an abrupt 50% in the last 12 years -- the biotech and materials patents have increased the need, impossible gizmos have been patented (no more working models) and the licencing system has become ridiculously complex. BCDEFG
      25. David Voss, ""New Physics' Finds a Haven At the Patent Office", Science, 1999, 287, 1252-4. Some pretty crazy gadgets which violate the basic laws of physics and thermodynamics have been patented because examiners are poorly trained and paid accordingly (you won't get Albert Einstein as your examiner!). Patents on successful inventions are devalued and phony inventions get financing as a result. BF
      26. David Malakoff, "Critics Say Rulings Give State U. License to Steal", Science, B2000, 289, 2267,9. US Supreme court gives states more protection from patent infringement suits than commercial enterprises, leaving open the possibility that their employees will be able to "steal" information, like software or texts, that is not available to others with impunity. B
      27. Discrimination among equals, problems of women and minorities

        See also Discrimination toward Protegees and Employees

      28. Judith A. Ramaley, Covert Discrimination and Women in the Sciences, AAAS, Washington, DC 1978. Thorough and thoughtful symposium. CDE
      29. Clarice M. Yentsch & Carl J. Sindermann, The Woman Scientist: Meeting the Challenges for a Successful Career, Plenum, NY, 1992. Discussion of the hindrances to success for women academic research scientists and ways to overcome them, based on 200 interviews and even more questionnaires. CDE
      30. Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940, Johns Hopkins Univ., 1982. This much-quoted book is THE source of information of women in science in America, where they were not as plentiful as in Europe. CDE
      31. Margaret W. Rossiter, Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action, 1940 - 1972, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, 1995. A well-documented story of resolution and courage in the face of repeated obstacles, during World War II, when women's contributions were desired, and after, when they were not. CDE
      32. Gerhard Sonnert and Gerald Holton, "Career Patterns of Women and Men in the Sciences", Amer. Sci. 1996, 84, 63 - 71. In the physical sciences, mathematics and engineering, but not biology, women fail to obtain promotions at the same rate as men. Article based on questionnaires and comments. CDE
      33. Mary Morse, Women Changing Science. Voices from a Field in Transition, Insight Books, Plenum Press, NY, 1995. Women scientists discuss scientific culture, ethics and their careers in response to interview questions. Discussion of the stories gives a vision of men and women leading full lives while having satisfying scientific careers CDE
      34. Otto Hahn "The Discovery of Fission", Sci. Amer. 1958 (Feb), 198, 77; Ruth Sime, " Lise Meitner and Fission: Fallout from the Discovery" Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. Engl. 1991, 30, 942. Meitner's contributions to the discovery of nuclear fission were clearly minimized by Hahn, but other people observed who did what. Perhaps it was not politically expedient to recognize the contributions of a Jewish woman too lavishly, but he apparently did help her escape. CDE
      35. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science 1789 - 1979, Rutgers U Press, NJ, 1987. This book focuses more on the women's personal lives than most of the women-in-science books. CE
      36. Jonathan R. Cole, Fair Science: Women in the Scientific Community, Free Press (Macmillan), Ny, 1977. This soliological examination of the factors that correlate with success and status in sciene compares the parameters for men and women, and accounts for all the discrpancies in women's status with such things as rank, department status (job and degree), papers published, etc. It does not seem to occur to him that the discrepancies in rank, department status, etc. might have been caused by discrimination. Book had great influence. CDE
      37. Gerhard Sonnert and Gerald Holton, Gender Differences in Science Careers: The Project Access Study, Rutgers Univ Press, Using results from 699 questionnaires and 200 interviews with winners of prestigious post-doctoral fellowships in science, mathematics and engineering, the authors develop a theoretical framework to test a glass-ceiling hypothesis. CDE
      38. Vivian Gornick, Women in Science: 100 Journeys into the Territory. Simon and Shuster, New York, 1990. Interviews with successful women scientists. CDE
      39. Linda Jean Shepherd, Lifting the Veil: The Feminine Face of Science, Shambhala, Boston, 1993. Biographies of women scientists. CDE
      40. Gerhard Sonnert, Who Succeeds in Science? The Gender Dimension, Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1995. 200 scientists who received prestigious post-doctoral fellowships were interviewed about their career paths. 20 are described thoroughly, distributed equally by research vs other careers and by sex to uncover the reasons for choices, successes and difficulties. Male and female participants were asked about the role of gender in their career development. Somone needs to do a study like this by race. CDE
      41. L. Richardson, Feminist Frontiers III: Gender Sterotyping in the English Language, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1993. CDEF
      42. Stephen Brush, "Women in Science and Engineering", Amer. Sci., 1991, 79, 404 - 419. CDE
      43. Margaret W. Rossiter, "The Matthew Mathilda Effect in Science", Social Studies in Science, 1993, 23, 325. CDE
      44. Evelyn Hammonds, "Never Meant to Survive: A Black Woman's Journey" in The Racial Economy of Science, Sandra Harding, ed. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, IN 1993. CDE
      45. Claudia Henrion, Women in Mathematics: The Addition of Difference, Indian U. Press, Bloomington, 1997. In spite of the myth that women are not good at math, suffer from "Math anxiety", etc., 46% of the bachelor's degrees in math go to women. But where are the visible women mathematicians? They comprise only 6% of the full-time faculty at doctoral institutions in the USA. The author interviews 10 women mathematicians to find out. BCD
      46. Elisabeth Crawford, Ruth Lewin Sime and Mark Walker, "A Nobel Tale of Postwar Injustice", Physics Today, 1997, September, 26 - 32. An analysis of why Lise Meitner was overlooked for the Nobel Prize in 1946 for the the discovery of nuclear fusion - she was a refugee (out of sight, out of mind) and Jewish (and antisemitism was rampant even in Sweden). Her male gentile co-worker won the award instead. Many scientists tried unsuccessfully to correct the oversight later. C
      47. Sharon Traweek, Beamtimes and Lifetimes: The World of High Energy Physicists, Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988. An anthropologist studies the culture of high energy physics and uncovers some messages, e.g. about gender, between the lines of the textbooks and unwritten rules for success. CDE
      48. Judith McIlwee and J. Gregg Robinson, Women in Engineering: Gender, Power and Workplace Culture, State Univ of New York Press, Albany, NY, 1992. Communication difficulties and hierarchical organizations are among the many obstacles women face in engineering. CDE
      49. Penelope Kegel-Flom, "Addressing Barriers to Women Scientists: Research and Strategies", AWIS Magazine, 1998, 27 (1), 17 -19. Specific things that can be done to improve success of women in academia that have been discovered by research. CDE
      50. Catherine Jay Didion, Marye Anne Fox, Mary Ellen Jones, "Cultivating Academic Careers" AWIS Magazine, 1998, 27 (1), 23 - 27. The executive summary of the Association for Women in Science's project on academic climate which involved surveys and interviews. CDE
      51. Hilary Rose, Love, Power and Knowledge - towards a feminist transformation of the sciences, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, 1994. AC
      52. Sandra Harding, ed. The "Racial" Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, IN, 1993. Essays on how science contructed "race" as a concept, who gets to do science, objectivitiy and method, and the future of science. CDE
      53. Bonnie B. Spanier, Impartial Science - Gender Ideology in Molecular Biology, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, IN, 1995.
      54. Dana Horn, "The Shoulders of Giants", Science, 1998, 280, 1354-5. Society has affected science by minimizing the participation of women such as Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin who discovered that stars are made primarily of hydrogen. She had to tone down her conclusions to get her thesis accepted. See biography by Haramundanis. CDE
      55. Penelope Kegel-Flom, "Addressing Barriers to Women Scientists: Research and Strategies", AWIS Magazine, 1998, 27(1), 17 - 19. A practical list of things to increase the number of women who enter and stay in science, based on research findings. CDE
      56. "Cultivating Academic Careers: Executive Summary of the AWIS Project on Academic Climate", AWIS Magazine, 1998, 27(1), 22 - 27. An examination of the factors which restrict the careers of women scientists in academia and a plan to ensure that that women are encouraged and supported as well as men are and that all scientists have better support systems. CDE
      57. Angela Pattatucci, ed, Women in Science: Meeting Career Challenges, Sage Publications, 1998. Essays by 25 women scientists from different backgrounds, from undergraduate student to university provost. Tips on how to avoid getting derailed from a professional track if that is what you are interested in. CDE
      58. Leslie Haynsworth (and David Toomey?), Amelia Earhart's daughters - the wild and glorious story of American women aviators from World War II to the dawn of the space age, William Morris, NY, 1998. This book apparently focuses on the 13 women aviators who became fully qualified as astronauts and were never allowed to fly a space mission - the Russians sending up a woman was just a publicity gimmick, NASA said. Some of these women were also scientists, but many just loved to fly and still do. CDE
      59. William G. Bowen and Derek Bok, The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions, Princeton U Press, 1998. The minorities admitted to select institutions during the period of affirmative action had poorer college grades but graduated at high rates; 40% then earned doctorates or professional degrees. Comparing, for example, blacks with similar testr scores, the more prestigious the college, the more likely they were to graduate, earn advanced degrees and receive high salaries. ACDE
      60. Frances K. Conley, Walking Out on the Boys, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York, 1998. Frances Conley put up with some pretty bad times in sexist classes in medical school (pin-ups and dirty jokes were the norm then), a prejudiced hiring system, second-rate facilties for women, etc., and succeeded, becoming a professor of medicine at Stanford. In 1991 she resigned in protest over the appointment of a faculty member who as notoriously insensitive, contemptuous, and lewd to women students, residents and faculty, explaining her decision in articles she sent to newspapers across the country. The new Chair's appointment was ultimately rescinded. CD
      61. Elga R. Wassermann, "Women in the National Academy: Their Lives as Scientists and Women", AWIS Magazine, 1998, 27(4), 6 - 10. A summary of interviews in person and by mail of the small number of women who have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences. This high honor can only be conferred by nomination and subsequent election by current members, so the election of any women has been difficult (the current membership is 12% women, far below the percentage (30) of women who earned PhD's 25 years ago and thius might be well-enough established to be elected. How did they succeed? CD
      62. Judith Glazer-Raymo, Shattering the Myths: Women in Academe, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. THe author combines autobiographical inquiry, ethnographic research and policy analysis to analyze the myths that limit women's roles not in science but in universities. Combines feminist theory and practice. BCD
      63. Willi Pearson, Jr. and Alan Fechter, eds. Who Will Do Science? Educating the Next Generation, JOhns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. Research and analysis of the participation of women and minorities in science with an eye to developing policy to change the current under-representation. CDE
      64. Mairin B. Brennan, "NOBCChE Stride Into The 21st Century", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, May 8, 77-79. This society of black chemists and chemical engineers has meetings with technical sessions and career advice and opportunities. CD
      65. Debra R. Rolison, "A Title IX Challenge", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Mar 13, 5. An editorial proposal to withhold federal funds from universities that do not increase the percentage of women faculty. Letters in response (all by men) pointing out that such actions would assure continued discrimination even farther into the future in Chem. Eng. News, 2000, May 8, 8-10.
      66. Jon Entine, Taboo: Why black athletes dominate sports and why we're afraid to talk about it, Public Affairs, NY, 2000. 65% of NFL players are black, 60% of college athletes -- is this genetics that we refuse to accept? The author thinks so. The author convincingly makes the point that populations do have different ranges of genetic heritage and that this phenomenon shows up not just in prevalence of diseases but in athletic ability as well. A courageous book, which has been both praised and criticized. Read the first chapter and other interesting exposes on Entines' web page, The web page includes reviews of the books, one of which challenges the data in Sci. Amer. 2000, May, 112 - 114. CDE
      67. Perri Klass, A Not Entirely Benign Procedure, Penguin-Putnam Inc, NY. The experience and paranoia of being a woman in the male-dominated field of medicine. BG
      68. Derek Freeman, The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead, Westview, Boulder, CO, 1998. Freeman exaggerates Mead's claims about sexuality in Samoa and claims she was duped by the teenagers she talked to -- and should have known better. Freeman himself has been much criticized for distorting Mead's work and exaggerating the extent to which she might have been duped. See also Martin Orans, Not Even Wrong: Margaret Mead, Derek Freeman, and the Samoans, Chandler and Sharp, Novato, CA, 1996 and Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa, Morrow, New York, 1928 (available in PB). BC
      69. Shirley Malcom, "Fault Lines", Science 1999, 284, 1271. The response to data on the low participation of women is always a program to "fix the women" -- the MIT report and action suggests a way to fix the system. B
      70. "The Verdict is In", Science, 2000, 290, 687. A short note that a Japanese woman scientist has sued an university successfully for "academic harassment", including her supervisor spraying chemicals in her office! Not much money though. CDE
      71. Farkonda Hassan, "Islamic Women in Science", Science, 2000, 290, 55. The author argues that Islam teaches that the quest for knowledge is an obligation of every man and woman, and thus that women should be able to get an education and practice science, but practices and percentages vary a great deal. CD
      72. Daryle H. Busch, "Women Scientists in Academia: The Time to Act is Now", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Sep 25, 58, 79. The president of the American Chemical Society presents the data and asks some hard questions. CDE
      73. "Demanding Less", Science, 2000, 290, 2065. Grants for medical research to men are 22% larger than those to women, possibly because men are more likely to head centers. CDG
      74. Please help me find more materials on race!!!
      75. Using "science" to defend discrimination (see also G. Biological and Medical Genetics)

      76. Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, Free Press, NY 1994. This controversial book claims that certain identifiable groups appear more commonly at the bottom of the socio-economic spectrum because they are, on average, less intelligent, less able to cope, etc. and quotes a variety of studies of IQ to support their contention. Anyone reading this book should also read reviews by statisticians and black journalists, or read Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, for an alternate interpretation of the data. BC
      77. Sandra Harding, ed., The "Racial" Economy of Science. Toward a Democratic Future, Indian U Press, Bloomington, 1993. A collection of essays about the misuse of science to justify racism, how science contructed "race" as a concept, who gets to do science, objectivitiy and method, and the future of science. CDEF
      78. .
      79. S. B. Thomas and S. C. Quinn, "The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 - 1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Education Programs in the Black Community", Am. J. Public Health, 1991, 81, 1498. See the biography section for a book on this racist and unethical experiment. CDE
      80. Taboo, Jon Entine, The author makes the convincing point that populations do have different ranges of genetic heritage and that this phenomenon shows up not just in prevalence of diseases but in athletic ability as well. A courageous book, which has been both praised and criticized. Criticized becuase others might use it to suggest that athletic ability is inversely correlated with intellectual ability, for example. Read the first chapter and other interesting exposes on Entines' web page,
      81. Pool, Robert, Eve's Rib: Searching for the Biological Roots of Sex Differences, Crown Publishers, NY, 1994. An examination of the observed differences in physiology, biochemistry, mathematics ability, etc. between the sexes and an evaluation of whether they are inherent or learned, and whether the statistical differences are meaningful. BCDG
      82. Londa Schiebinger, Nature's Body. Gender in the Making of Modern Science, Beacon Press, Boston, 1995. Eighteenth century science was particularly adept and identifying white male as norm, and justifying all sorts of racial and sexual policies scientifically. BCF
      83. Londa Schiebinger, The Mind Has No Sex? Women in the Origins of Modern Science, Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, MA 1989. A scholarly analysis of the philosophical and cultural origins of women's participation and exclusion. Enlightening and very readable. BCDE
      84. Ruth Bleier, Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women, Pergamon, NY, 1984. BCD
      85. Sandra Harding,"From the Woman Question in Science to the Science Question in Feminism", The Science Question in Feminism, Cornell U. Press, Ithaca, NY, 1987. BCD
      86. Jan Harding, Perspectives on Gender and Science, Falmer Press, Phila., 1986, esp. chapters 4, 8 to 10. BCD
      87. Nancy Tuana, The Less Noble Sex. Scientific, Religious, and Philosophical Conceptions of Woman's Nature, Indiana U, Bloomington, 1993. Early scientific theory of women was influenced by religion and philosophy. BCD
      88. P. A. Green, "Evolutionary Insights into Problems of Sexism, Classism and Racism, Including Prospects for their Elimination", Race, Gender and Class, 1995, 2(2), 65 - 83.
      89. J. Belkhir, L. Mangurian, B. Masters, C. Charlemaine, M. Tarnevich, M. Duyme and C. Capron, "Brain and Mathematics: A Race, Gender and Class Critical Analysis", Race, Gender and Class, 1995, 3(2)
      90. Kenneth D. Alpern, ed., The Ethics of Reproductive Technology, Oxford U. Press, 1992. Essays collected from various sources on topics such as: why have babies; selling babies; are reproductive technologies opportunities or forms of oppression; rights, law and public policy; professional responsibility. CDEG
      91. Ruth Hubbard, Profitable Promises, Common Courage Press, 1995. This extended essays covers three major topics: genes, illness and behavior; women, science and power; and a political understanding of science. CDEG
      92. Ruth Hubbard, The Politics of Women's Biology, Rutgers Univ Press, According to a review, she "dissects the workings of sciecne, revealing that all questions spring from a cultural and political base and that research results can and are used to support cultural biases". CDEG
      93. Marianne van den Wijngaard, Reinventing the Sexes: the Biomedical Construction of Femininity and Masculinity, Indiana U Press, Bloomington, 1997. The author examines how traditional views of femininity and masculinity have influenced research on sexual difference and the brain and how feminist thought has modified scientific practice. BCD
      94. Londa Schiebinger, Has Feminism Changed Science?, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA 1999. The book explores several scientific fields to see how gender has influenced the content of sciecne, without directly addressing the question "what contributions have women made to science that are (or would be) different from those made by men?". The specific examples show instances where women have made a difference to the course and interpretation of science, from the lab and the field to the granting agencies. BCDE
      95. CUNY Panels: Rethinking the Disciplines. Bonnie Spanier, Sue Rosser, Joseph N. Muzio, Edward B. Tucker, Biology, National Center for Curriculum Transformation Resources on Women, Towson U, Baltimore. The impact of the recent scholarship on gender, ethnicity and class on the discipline. The series also includes Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology. BG
      96. Evelyn Fox Keller amd Helen E. Longino, eds, Feminism and Science, Oxford University Press, 1996. Essays provide analyises of the use of language to perpetuate stereotypes and give them scientific foundations. BCDE
      97. Conflict of Interest, esp. Funding and Loyalty

      98. Bruce C. Gates, "Industry - University Cooperation in Action", CHEMTECH, 1984, 600 - 606. A positive look at cooperation. CE
      99. Alan Freeman, "How a Top University Unwittingly Became Stock Promotion Bait", Wall St. J., Apr. 27, 1984, 1, 22. Industry-university cooperation can cause serious problems for a university and its reputation. CE
      100. Ralph T. King, Jr., "How a Drug Firm Paid for University Study, then Undermined It", Wall St. J., 1996, Apr 25, 1. Boots pharmaceutical funded a study at UCSF comparing their expensive drug with an inexpensive generic; the results of the study showed that there was no difference between the drugs. The paper was accepted by JAMA, but Boots prevented publication - in accord with fine print in the contract. BCFG
      101. Kathleen Hart, "Is Academic Freedom Bad for Business?", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1989, April, 28 - 34.
      102. Constance Holden, "Research Group Forswears Financial Ties to Firms Whose Drugs it Tests", Science, 1989, 244, 282.
      103. V. Weil and J. Snapper, eds. Owning Scientific and Technical Information: Value and Ethical Issues, Rutgers U. Press, NJ, 1989. EF
      104. Ron Smith, "CBS, EPA have lulled city's citizen's into complacence on PCB issue", Bloomington, IN newspaper, Jan 1999 (my source clipped off the reference). Westinghouse dumped PCB's and received internal and external warnings, EPA protected them (then their lawyer left EPA to work for Westinghouse's lawyers), and CBS now owns the problem. BEFG
      105. "In the Crossfire: Collins on Genomes, Patents, and 'Rivalry'", Science, 2000, 287, 2396 - 8. Francis Collins, head of the National Human Genome Research Institute talsk about who should own the human genome and their competition with Celera Genomics and Perkin-Elmer. BCDEFG
      106. Carol Cruzan Morton, "Company, Researchers Battle over Data Access"Science, 2000, 290, 1063. Corporate funding attempts to block publication of a study they funded which discovered an immune system booster for AIDS patients. CFG

    5. Scientists and their Protegees / Employees
      1. Responsible Teachers and Mentors

      2. Derek Bok, "Ethics, the University and Society", Harvard Mag., 1988 (May/June), 39 - 50. BDF
      3. S. Erkut and J. R. Mokros, "Professors as Models and Mentors for College Students", Amer. Educ. Res. J., 1984, 21, 399 - 417. D
      4. E. M. Nuss, "Academic Integrity: comparing faculty and student attitudes", Improv. Coll. Univ. Teaching, 32(3), 140 - 144. BDE
      5. John I. Goodlad, Roger Soder and Kenneth A. Sirotnik, eds, The Moral Dimensions of Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1990. Includes the legal and moral responsibility of teachers. D
      6. Peter J. Markie, A Professor's Duties. Ethical Issues in College Teaching, Rowman and Littlefield, 1994. Once again, professors at research universities are encouraged to pay attention to teaching, plus some other writings on ethics in college teaching. AD
      7. Shirley Lin, "Meeting", Chemical and Engineering News, 1998, July 27, 59 - 62. A short story about the importance of mentoring and its unexpected sources, plus some insight into family-career conflicts. CDE
      8. Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering, National Academy Press, 1997. A somewhat superficial but nice and short description of the responsibilities of mentors. AD
      9. John M. Braxton and Alan E. Bayer, Faculty Misconduct in Collegiate Teaching, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. ALthough this book is not about science, it is about the need for a formal code of ethics for undergraduate teaching, both to improve teaching and its status as a profession. D

        Misconduct toward Protegees and Employees

      10. Steven M. Cahn, Saints and Scamps: Ethics in Academia, Rowman and Littlefield, New Jersey, 1986. Responsibilities of teachers, scholars, colleagues and mentors are addressed with examples both good and bad from the author's experience. CD
      11. Charles J. Sykes, ProfScam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education, Regnery Gateway, Washington, DC, 1988. This work claims that all professors commit fraud, mistreat and cheat their students, will do anything for grants and contracts. He does not even realize that institutions other than large research universities exist. BookScam! It sold well and then disappeared. CD
      12. D. G. Rutherford and S. G. Olswang, "Academic misconduct: the due process rights of students", Nat Assoc. Stud. Pers. Admin., 1981, 19(Fall), 12 - 16. DE
      13. Wade Roush, "Publishing Sensitive Data: Who Calls the Shots?", Science, 1997, 276, 523 - 524. A study of worker health commisioned by a company shows that it has been harmed by their jobs - can they prevent publication? BCDF.
      14. Roger P. Croll, "The noncontributing author: An issue of credit and responsibility", Persp. Biol. Med., 1984, 27(3), 401 - 407. Bosses sometimes expect their names to be put on papers they did not contribute to intellectually. CDE
      15. Discrimination toward Protegees and Employees

        See also discrimination among equals

      16. Mary P. Rowe, "Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity", Employee Resp. Rights J., 1990, 3(2), 153 - 163. Little insults and derogatory comments erode the confidence of employess who are "different" -- criticisms are directed at sex and race rather than job competence. DE
      17. A Study on the Status of Women Faculty at MIT, The MIT Faculty Newsletter, Vol IX, No. 4, March 1999. Senior women faculty at MIT discovered they had problems in common and convinced the Science Dean Robert Birgeneau to give the the authority to study their situation. The committee found discrepancies in salary, space allocations, consideration for named chairs, etc. that did not exist for junior faculty. The Dean and President reacted by correcting the situation, even going so far as to correct pensions of retired faculty! They set a high standard of sensitivity and responsiveness. CDE
      18. Corinne A. Marasco, Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace, Workforce Report of the Amer. Chem. Soc., April 1994. CDE
      19. Science, Annual specials on Women in Science and Minorities in Science, e.g. Elizabeth Culotta, ed., "Maintaining Diversity in Science", Science, 1996, 264, 1901 - 1921. CDE
      20. Donna L. Hoffman and Thomas P. Novak, "Bridging the Racial Divide on the Internet", Science, 1998, 280, 390 - 391. Black students are half as likely to have a computer in their home and much less likely than white students to use computers and the Internet at school too. A higher percentage of blacks than whites said they wanted access. CDEF
      21. Joachim Krueger, Joseph Graves Jr, Philip Bereano and Adam Clayton Powell III, "Division on the Internet" Science, 1998, 281, 919 - 920. These authors of letters challenge the article by Hoffman and Novak which claims that blacks are restricted in their access to the Internet. C
      22. Michael Woods, Working Chemists with Disabilities: Expanding Opportunities in Science, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC1966. Stories about 17 chemists who are working in a variety of positions with disabilities of different kinds - mobility, hearing, sight, etc. Nothing explicit about ethics, but their successes negate any "rational" arguments against hiring people with disabilities. CDE
      23. Mairin B. Brennan "Reshaping Affirmative Action", Chemical and Engineering News, July 20, 1998. The California and Texas laws preventing any selection criteria which include race have forced the Universities to reevaluate admission criteria to preserve diversity on campus, since minorities are voting with their feet and tuition. ACD
      24. Doug Wallace, "It's (Still) a Man's World", Business Ethics, 1998, 12 (4), 16. Analysis of a case in which a woman was passed over for promotion, with actual outcome. CD
      25. Brigid O'Farrell, "NASA Celebrates 20 Years: Women, Affirmative Action and the US Space Program", ASI Magazine, 1998, 27(4), 11 - 14. A brief summary of the careers of the early woman astronauts, none of whom were allowed to fly after completing their training. (Russia sending up a woman was "just a gimmick", according to NASA.) The world of the 1960's was sex-segregated in careers, and NASA was no exception. CD
      26. Jerrie Cobb, with J. Ricker, Women into Space: The Jerrie Cobb Story, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1963. One of the first fully qualified woman astronauts, but never chosen - the other woman astronauts pushed and pushed for her selection. Eventually she went back to aircraft and is now a charter pilot in Mexico. See Haynsworth book above for an update. CD
      27. Prevention of Sexual Harassment, Employee Handbook of the U. S. Army Research Laboratory, Adlephi, MD 1998. "supervisors must set the example in treating all people with mutual respect and dignity... and taking appropriate action when conduct is .. discriminatory or otherwise unprofessional." CD
      28. Towson University Fair Practices Faculty Handbook, 1999, pages 97 - 99, Faculty Handbook, 1999, pages 90 - 103. "Discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, age, political affiliation, marital status, sexual orientation, condition of disability, religion, veteran status, national origin, or other non-merit factor is not permitted." "The University community.. will not tolerate sexual harassment ... " CD
      29. Madeleine Jacobs and William Storck, "Women In Industry Still Hit Glass Ceiling", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, May 8, 36-7. Data from 48 of the top 75 chemical producers is presented. Overall, these comapnies have women as 9.7% of their directors and 7.3% of their corporate officers. A look at the job titles reveals that most are not scientists but lawyers, accountants and human resource managers. CDE
      30. Robert F. Service, "Jury Awards $545,000 in Stanford Case" Science, 2000, 288, 26. Female former computer science expert in the medical school was "treated with malice" although it may not have been discrimination. CD
      31. Marcia Barinaga, "UCSF Researchers Leave, Charging Bias", Science, 2000, 288, 26-7. Treatment of the wife, an adjunct professor and productive researcher, precipitates a search for two new jobs -- and she becomes a full professor at UCLA. CDE
      32. Veronica A. Szalai, "Women in Science", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Feb 14, 13. It is not networking but the discouragement of any outside pursuits that keeps young women out of academic positions. Not only the universities but the fellowships make no allowances for maternity. CDE
      33. Constance Holden, "Court Backs Michigan Policy on Diversity", Science, 2000, 290, 2227. Race and other factors are given 20/150 points in admissions. Other ways to consider race have been rejected by other courts - are we reaching a consensus? CD
      34. Andrew Lawler, "Debate Flares over Tracking Foreigners", Science, 2000, 290, 1276. The INS is testing a new electronic system for tracking foreign students to ensure that they remain students -- and even determine if they change majors (e.g. to nuclear engineering) to ensure that they are not or do not become terrorists.. Does this sound excessive to you? DF
      35. Discrimination against Asian-Americans, esp Wen Ho Lee
        1. Andrew Lawler, "Silent No Longer: 'Model Minority' Mobilizes", Science, 2000, 290, 1072-1077. The espionage accusation and incarceration of Wen Ho Lee caused an outrage among so many people. Asian-Americans have begun to speak out about their slow promotion rates, lower salaries and the common assumption that they are a security risk, even if third generation American. CD
        2. Michael Heylin, "Journalism 101", Chem. Eng News, 2000, Oct 9, 46. An editorial criticizing the NY Times and other papers and magazines for convicting Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee of espionage without evidence or trial, in violation of basic journalism principles. CD.
        3. Andrew Lawler, "Relief, Rebuke Follow Agreement on Lee", Science, 2000, 289, 1851, 1853. After a year in solitary confinement, sometimes in shackles, Wen Ho Lee is released after pleading guilty to being careless with classified data, a common practice, alas. CD

        Employee Safety and Health

      36. Malcolm McConnell. Challenger: A Major Malfunction, Doubleday, New York, 1987. This book describes a wide variety of unethical and careless methods which could have and did lead to the death of 7 astronauts and a much bigger set-back to space exploration than any in-time repairs could have. DEF
      37. Lynne Olson, "The Silkwoods of Silicon Valley", Working Woman, July 1984, 71-2, 106, 108, 110-111. D
      38. Dorothy Nelkin and Michael S. Brown, Workers at Risk: Voices from the Workplace, U of Chicago Press, 1984. The reduction of government regulation of workplace safety in the 80's is relfected in the concerns of workers. The technical views are those of the workers. D
      39. Robert Ladenson, Ethics in the American Workplace, LRP Publications, 1995. ABCDE
      40. Marjorie Kelly, "The Cruel Underside of Productivity", Business Ethics, 1998, 12 (4), 6. A description of how productivity is improved at the expense of workers, with references to articles in Fortune. DE
      41. Ceila M. Henry, "Taking Care of Employees", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Oct 2, 167 - 177. Not just safety but climates friendly to advancement of all genders and races and generous benefits, a kind of Consumer Reports evaluation of large employers of chemists.

    6. Scientists, their Bosses and their Funding
      1. Power

      2. Dorothy Nelkin, Science as Intellectual Property: Who Controls Scientific Research?, AAAS, Washington, DC, 1984. A short book on the ownership rights of scientific information: granting agency, employer, scientist, public. CDE
      3. Vera Kistiakowsky, Military Funding of University Research, ANNALS AAPSS, March 1989, 502, 141 - 154.
      4. Ellen W. Schrecker, No Ivory Tower. McCarthyism and the University, Oxford U Press, Ny 1986. Political pressures can be intense on the University, especially since it is financially dependent on government funds. Academic freedom and individual rights can easily be overlooked in favor of institutional gain. CDEF
      5. John Hurley, Organisation and Scientific Discovery, Wiley, NY, 1996. The author interviewed Nobel prizewinners and found that not just genius but a supportive organization made their work possible. ADE

        Management and Its Intrinsic Problems

      6. Robert Jackall, "Moral Mazes: Bureaucracy and Managerial Work", Harv. Bus. Rev., Spet 1983, 61(5), 118 - 130. Study includes a chemical company and illustrates the pattern of credit up, blame down. E
      7. Richard P. Nielsen, "Changing Unethical Organizational Behavior", Executive (Acad. Management), 1989, III(2), 123 - 130. A thorough approach to the options an employee has when faced with an unethical action or culture by his/her employer. CDE
      8. W. Deming Edwards, Out of the Crisis, MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, Cambridge, MA. Quality in a manufacturing environment requires adherence to the same prinicples as quality in a research environment, and ethics permeates both. BCDE
      9. Ralph W. Clark and Alice Darnell Lattal, Workplace Ethics: Winning the Integrity Revolution, Littlefield Adams, Lanham, MD 1993. CDEF
      10. O. C. Ferrell and Gareth Gardiner, In Pursuit of Ethics: The World of Work, Smith Collins Co., Springfield 1991. CDEF
      11. Guy B. Adams and Danny L. Balfour, Unmasking Administrative Evil, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, Ca, 1998. The thesis of this book is that modern management principles contain in them the potential for great evil -- responsibility is highly restricted to performing the tasks that your boss sets for you, without questioning why. The faceless bureaucrats of Nazi Germany, who arrested and deported all the non-citizens were just doing their jobs -- but all the jews had a variety of other groups had just been deprived of their citizenship by a government decree -- by people who did noth think out the consequences. Fascinating and scary book. EF

        Disagreements and Whistleblowing

      12. Deborah G. Johnson, Ethical Issues in Engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1991. A selection of readings about ethical codes, whistleblowers, and what it all means. BEF
      13. Alan F. Westin, Whistleblowing: Loyalty & Dissent in the Corporation, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1981. Case studies of attempts by scientists, engineers, etc. to correct errors from inside and outside their corporations. E
      14. M. P. Glazer and P. M. Glazer, The Whistleblowers: Exposing Corruption in Government and Industry, Basic Books, NY, 1990. BEF
      15. Elliston, Keenan, Lockhart and von Schaick, Whistleblowing: Managing Dissent in the Workplace, Praeger Scientific, New York, 1985. E
      16. J. S. Bowman, F. A. Elliston and P. Lockhart, Professional Dissent, an annotated bibliography and resource guide, Garland Pub., Inc., NY, 1989. One section on scientists and engineers. EF
      17. "How a federal agency might be reformed to make so-called "whistleblowing" obsolete", discussion paper of the Assoc. Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics (AFSEEE), PO Box 11615, Eugene, OR or Ways to encourage input from employees and ensure they are heard. EFG
      18. Michael Davis, "Avoiding the Tragedy of Whistleblowing", Bus. & Prof. Ethics, 8(4), 3 - 19.
      19. Glenn T. Wilson, "Ethics: Your Company or your Conscience", Working Woman, June 1984, 62, 64, 67. E
      20. Natalie Daneker, "Can Whistleblowing be Fully Legitimated?" Bus. Prof. Ethics J., 10(1), 89 - 108. EF
      21. Trudy E. Bell and Karl Esch, "The Fatal Flaw in Flight 51-L", IEEE Spectrum, 1987, 24(2), 36 - 51. Flight 51-L was the last of the space shuttle Challenger and the article discusses the technical and human causes of the failure. EF
      22. "NASA engineer's vigilance possibly saved shuttle crew", Baltimore Sun, Oct 13, 200, 8A. A 4-inch pin was wedged against a fuel tank on the Discovery; earlier a 2-inch pin was sticking out when it should have retracted -- both found during an ice inspection by the same engineer. The shuttle launch is a very complex process, outlined in "Cast of thousands readies space shuttle for launch", Baltimore Sun, Jan 14, 2001, 2A. EF
      23. B. W. Hollis, "I Turned in my Mentor", The Scientist, 1987, 1(Dec. 14), 11 - 12. Also Robert L. Sprague, "I Trusted the Research System" and J. Jacobstein, "I am not Optimistic" in the same issue; reports by whistleblowers of scientific misconduct and the results of reporting it. BCEF
      24. Jeffrey W. Kirsch, "The Ethics of Going Public: Communicating Through Mass Media", American Behavioral Scientist, 1982, 26, 251 - .
      25. J. C. Petersen and Dan Farrell, Whistleblowing: Ethical and Legal Issues in Expressing Dissent. IIT CSEP. ISBN 0-8403-3945-8
      26. Myron Peretz Glazer and Penina Migdal Glazer, The Whistleblowers, Basic Books, NY, 1989. A 6-year study of 64 individuals who reported wrong-doing by colleagues. They all ran into serious difficulties, but many overcame them. DE
      27. Marcia P. Miceli and Janet P. Near, Blowing the Whistle, Lexington Books, NY, 1992. They point out that the obligation to act is not hard and fast, since doing so may seriously comprimize your own research and not even fail to stop the fraud. Amost every whistlblower said they would do it again, in spite of the consequences. DE
      28. Courage Without Martyrdom: A Survival Guide For Whistleblowers, Government Accountability Project, Washington, DC ( Presents tactics organizations use to neutralize dissenters, so as to prepare the potential whistleblower. DE
      29. Lois R. Ember, "Report Jolts FBI Lab into Reform", Chem, Eng. News 1997, June 16, 25 - 29. One FBI scientist, dismayed by the involvement of unqualified personnel, the misrepresentation of the reliability and meaning of results, and the failure of management to respond, reported the problems to the Office of the Inspector General. The investigation resulted in improvement of laboratory procedures but nearly cost the prosecution a conviction in the Oklahoma City bombing case. BF
      30. R. DeGeorge, "Ethical Responsibilities of Engineers in Large Organizations: the Pinto Case", Bus. Prof. Ethics, 1981, 1(1), 1 - 14. BF
      31. R. Boisjoly, "Ethical Decisions: Morton Thiokol and the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster", Proceedings of American Society of Mechanical Engineers Winter Annual Meeting, 12/1987, 1 - 13. BEF
      32. James S. Bowman, "Whistle-Blowing in the Public Service: An Overview of the Issues", Rev. Public Personnel Admin., 1980, 1(fall), 15 - 27. EF
      33. Rosemary Chalk, "Making the World Safe for Whistleblowers", Technol. Rev. 1988, Jan. 48 - 57. EF
      34. Rosemary Chalk and Frank von Hippel, "Due Process for Dissenting Whistleblowers", Technol. Rev. 1979, June/July, 49 - 55. EF
      35. C. K. Gunsalus, "How to Blow the Whistle and Still Have a Career Afterwards", Sci. Engin. Ethics 1998, 4, 51 - 64. Good practical advice on what to do if you suspect research misconduct, including assessment of your role and your (or others') evidence and identification of the appropriate procedures. The recurring theme - ask questions rather than accuse. BCDEF
      36. Brian Martin, The Whistleblower's Handbook: How to Be and Effective Resister, Jon Carpenter, Charlbury UK, 1999. How to prepare, use official channels, build support, and survive the experience. (Available in the USA through Paul and CO, Concord, MA) E
      37. Career Choices

      38. Roger M. Boisjoly, Employment Search with a Conscience, unpublished. How to find an employer who treats employees and products with high ethical standards. Unpublished, available from the author or your instructor. DEF
      39. Dorothy Rodman, Donald D. Bly, Ferd Owens, Ann-Claire Anderson, Career Transitions for Chemists, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC 1995. A clear-eyed look at how to find the right employer for you. Adaptable to other fields. E
      40. Edwin M. Hartmann, Organizational Ethics and the Good Life, Oxford U. Press, Oxford and New York, 1996. Argues that a good corporate culture serves the interests of the participants and a sense of the good life appropraiet to a moral person. Philosophical and sociological and not science-oriented. E
      41. Richard P. Nielsen, The Politics of Ethics, Oxford U. Press, Oxford and New York, 1996. Examines the obstacles to behaving ethically in organizations and corporate mechanisms which could help overcome these obstacles. Not science-oriented. E
      42. "Science Careers: Playing to Win", Science, 1994, 265, 1905 - 1939. A series of articles, interspersed with company ads, describing the current tight job market for scientists, and successful and unsuccessful strategies for finding a job, performing in different environments, and retiring. Issues like this every year. E
      43. Rebecca Christman, "How I Fought My Own War Over Nuclear Arms", Working Woman, 1988 (Oct), 54, 152. A personal commitment not to work on defence again. F
      44. D. David Parnas, "Why I Quit Star Wars", Common Cause Mag.,1986 (May/June), 32 - 35. The author was one of the leaders of a movement of scientists not to accept funding from DoD under the "Star Wars" (SDIO) intitative; he explains why. EF
      45. The Job-Seeker's Guide to Socially Responsible Companies, Business Ethics, Minneapolis, MN. Describes 1000 public and private companies that are socially responsible, with tips for a successful job search. CDE
      46. Alan Reder, 75 Best Business Practices for Socially Responsible Companies, Business Ethics, Minneapolis, MN. Practices that positively affect employees communities and society (e.g. compassionate downsizing - an oxymoron?) CDE.
      47. Carl J. Sindermann and Thomas K. Sawyer, The Scientist as Consultant: Building New Career Opportunities, Plenum, NY, 1997. A guidebook for scienitts looking at second careers gathered from 100 scientists who have made the transition. Includes legal and ethical issues. ADE
      48. Peter S. Fiske, To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC 1996. The book grew out of a series of career workshops on career planning, including self-assessment, interviews, networking, with examples of resumes. Not sure if ethical issues are discussed. ADE
      49. Richard M. Reis, Tomorrow's Professor: Preparing for Academic Careers in Science and Engineering, IEEE Press, NY, 1997. The balance between breadth and depth, experience to get while you are in graduate school, publishing, job-hunting, etc. CDE
      50. Stuart Rojstaczer, Gone for Good: Tales of University Life after the Golden Age, Oxford Univ Press, New York, 1999. A recently tenured science professor at Duke Univ. tells his story and those of others to shine a bright light on how universities really work -- politics, the role of graduate students, the scramble for money. Junior faculty perspective is unusual. ABCDE
      51. Daryle H. Busch, "The Academic Workforce: Is It Impairing Education?", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Apr. 24, 57. An editorial reminding all that the dependence of universities on temporary and part-time (adjunct) faculty threatens the quality of education of future scientists. The ACS Committee on Profession Training "pronounces these practices unacceptable!" BCDEF
      52. Arthur W. Galston developed plant growth stimulators during his PhD project. When the Army later developed them as warfare agents, he joined the protest of the conduct of the Vietnam war and redirected his research to the preservation and restoration of tropical forests. He tells his own story in:
        1. Arthur W. Galston, "Science and Social Responsibility: A Case History", Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1972, 196, 223 - 235.
        2. Arthur W. Galston, "Plants, People and Politics", BioScience, 1970, 20, 405 - 410. EFG
      53. Jeffrey Mervis, "Report Urges Better Treatment, Status", Science, 2000, 289, 1854-5. The National Academies study found that postdoctoral fellows were not given the salary they deserve and often have no rights in University labs, where they are not students but not exactly employees either. See
      54. Jeffrey Mervis "Academy Plans Guide to Improve Status", Sciecne, 2000, 289, 26-7. Postdoctoral fellows need the protection of some national guidelines for how they should be paid and what their role should be. CDE
      55. Marcia Barinaga, "Soft Money's Hard Realities", Science, 2000, 289, 2024-8. Full-time research positions are rare, but many institutions will hire people who can bring in their own money, supporting themselves and defraying the costs of the building facilities. It is life on the edge, but it works for some.

    7. Scientists and the Public
      1. General issues of science and society

      2. H. E. Longino, Science as Social Knowledge, Princeton Univ. Press, 1990. F
      3. Newton, David E., Science and Social Issues, J. Weston Walch Pub., Portland, ME. A series of case studies on how science and technology may clash with society. Designed for high school and college courses in social issues arising out of scientific discoveries and inventions. F
      4. Robert E. McGinn, Science, Technology and Society, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1991. This sociology book exaimes the roles of science in society, including the ethical issues raised by technologies. FG
      5. S. E. Cozzens and T. F. Gieren, eds, Theories of Science in Society, Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, IN, 1990. F
      6. R. Cameron and A. J. Millard, Technology Assessment: A Historical Approach, Ill. Instit. Technol. CSEP. ISBN 0-8403-3730-2
      7. Mark S. Frankel, Science as a Socially Responsible Community, The Poynter Center, Indiana Univ., 1994. An essay about the responsibilities of scientists, to serve and educate the public, ensure fair treatment within the community.
      8. Gregg Easterbrook, "Science and God: A Warming Trend?", Science, 1997, 277, 890 - 893. Comments and interviews on the tension between science and religion and recent various concessions from both sides. AF
      9. Michael A. Heller and Rebecca S. Eisenberg, "Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research", Science, 1998, 280, 698 - 701. The authors argue that patents result in such stringent restriction on use (because of cost of licencing, for example) that they stifle the use of the information and ultimately stifle the progress of science. Reverse of Hardin's approach where the commons is overused because unrestricted. DF
      10. Jerome Ravetz, Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems, Oxford Unive Press 1971. AF
      11. Deborah G. Mayo and Rachelle D. Hollander, Acceptable Evidence. Science and Values in Risk Management, Oxford Univ Press, 1991. Experience dealing with intuitive probabilistic thinking will help make better risk assessment and management, since most people's perception of risk is at odds with the actual numbers. ABF
      12. Edward J. Larson, Summer for the Gods: The Scopes Trial and America's Continuing Debate over Science and Religion, Basic Books, NY, 1997. The real story (unlike the movie) provides insight into the struggle between individual liberty and majoriy rule and between science and religion. AF
      13. Andrew Lawler, "Meltdown on Long Island", Science, 2000, 287, 1382 - 1388. Neighbors protest Brookhaven National Laboratory's high energy and nuclear experiments after management fails to take their concerns seriously, even after several leaks of radioactive waste. Long history of arrogance, apparently. F
      14. Roles of scientists in a public forum

      15. Joel Primack and Frank von Hippel, Advice and Dissent, Basic Books, NY, 1974. An account of the rewards and frustrations of providing scientific advice to government. F
      16. Peter Block, Stewardship -- Choosing Service over Self-Interest, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco,1993. EF
      17. Sissela Bok, Secrets. On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation, Pantheon, New York, 1982. Includes self-deception, gossip, professional confidentiality, corporate, state and military secrets, whistleblowing, police investigations and privacy issues. BCF
      18. R. T. Martinott, "Is Big Brother Watching?" Today's Chemist at Work, 1995, July/Aug, 14 - 20. F
      19. John T. Edsall, "Two Aspects of Scientific Responsibility", Science, 1981, 212, 11 - 14. F
      20. Rosemary Chalk, ed., Science Technology and Society: Emerging Relationships, AAAS, Washington, DC 1988. An out-of-print collection of articles on science and freedom, responsibility, ethics, citizens, national security, and the importance of human character on science and science on the world. ABF
      21. A. Maureen Rouhi, "Seeking Drugs in Natural Products", Chem. Engin. News, 1997, April 7, 14 - 29. Chemists contribute to saving the rainforest by discovering drugs and helping indigenous people to harvest them renewably. FH
      22. Kenneth R. Foster and Peter W. Huber, Judging Science: Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1997. This book uses the court cases in which Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals, makers of bendectin, defended against accusations that bendectin caused birth defects. The case provides an opportunity to delve into the role of junk science in the courts and had a big effect on the way scientific testimony is handled in the courts. FG
      23. Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998. A small book intended to provide teachers guidance on teaching evolution while teaching scientific reasoning. Uses national standards (theirs) and gives suggestions for inquiry-based projects. FG
      24. Patricia Layman, "Swiss science community goes to bat", Chem. Eng. News, 1998, July 13, 33-4. Swiss scientists marched and demonstrated and convinced the public to defeat a referendum to ban genetic research. FG
      25. Jocelyn Kaiser, "Should Engineer Witnesses Meet Same Standards as Scientists?" Science 1998, 281 1578. The 1993 Daubert vs Merrel Dow decision required judges to approve the validity of scientific testimony before it was given in court, based on certain criteria. Recent discussions between lawyers and engineers suggest the same criteria and procedures may be applied to other expert testimony. FG
      26. Guy B. Adams and Danny L. Balfour, Unmasking Administrative Evil, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, 1998. What happened in germany in WW II was facilitated by a very effective and unquestioning bureaucracy. Evil can be done by bureaucracies even when they intend to do good, because a good public employee is one who carries out their task effectively and efficiently without questioning the reason. Often evil is done with no one person deciding to do it. Examples are given from US government activites but it would really be interesting to apply the anaylsis to corporations. Are scientists in a position to unmask evil? Sometimes. EF
      27. David T. Case and Jeffrey B. Bitter, "Disconnects between Science and the Law", Chem. Eng. News, 2000 (Feb 14), 49 - 60. The rules governing acceptability of expert testimony have been changing (now the judge decides which experts have standing). Electronic information complicates this dialogue because of its ephemeral nature and the current lack of "peer review". F
      28. Funding by the public (see also conflict of interest)

      29. Paul DeForest, Mark S. Frankel, Jeanne S. Poindexter, Vivian Weil, Eds, Biotechnology: Professional Issues and Social Concerns, AAAS, Washington, DC, 1988. The problems of doing proprietary research in a university. EF
      30. Jon Cohen, "Tobacco Money Lights Up a Debate" Science, 1996, 272, 488 - 494. Does grant money from tobacco companies influence biomedical research? BF
      31. Philip Nobile, ed., Judgement at the Smithsonian, Marlowe, NY, 1995. The Smithsonian exhibit on the atomic bomb development and use offended veterans because of strong implications that the reasons for dropping the bombs on Japan were concocted (e.g. that an invasion of Japan would be needed and cost millions of lives). They protested and the exhibit was changed. The American Chemical Society was not so successful in its complaints about the exhibit "Science in American Life" which places a strong emphasis on pollution, risk, etc. F
      32. Terence Kealy, The Economic Laws of Scientific Research, St. Martin's Press, Macmillan, NY, 1996. He makes the argument that private funding may have merit. DF
      33. Dale Jamieson, "What Society Will Expect from the Future Research Community", Sci. Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1(1), 73 - 80. Society makes conflicting demands on universities: more research and better education, more definitive research and fewer dollars tax spent, better science education and lower taxes. We need to engage in this debate asnd honestly rethink the role of science in society to ensure that science does inform policy instead of being parallel to it. DF
      34. Andrew Lawler, "'Faster, Cheaper Better' on Trial", Science, 2000, 288, 232 - 34. NASA's budget is not so lavish as it once was, but the corners they cut under Goldin's leadership to impress Congress have backfired in the failures of two Mars missions, one from a failure to check measurement units! BEF
      35. Lois L. Ember, "The Heft of Weightless Research", Chem. Eng. News, 1999, Oct 11, 53 -69. Does NASA exaggerate the importance of research into microgravity to ensure continued funding? DF
      36. Madeline Jacobs, "A Promise to Readers", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Jan 17, 5. The merging of publishing companies is reducing the diversity of opinions available (Time-Warner-AOL). Will this affect science? BF
      37. David H. Guston, Between Politics and Science: Assuring the Integrity amd Productivity of Research, Cambridge Univ Press, 2000. A history, analysis and prognosis of the "contract", namely the implicit agreement that if the public fund research in science, benefits will be provided through advances in science and technology -- people don't buy it without question any more. F

        Politics, Secrecy, Power and War

      38. Phantom Risk: Scientific Inference and the Law, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1993. A discussion of current and appropriate standards for acceptability of scientific evidence in court using specific examples; as the title suggests, the theme is that risks are overrated. Bendectin, asbestos, PCBs, dioxin, etc. F
      39. Carl F. Cranor, Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and Law, Oxford U. Press, NY, 1993. The author believes that standards are currently too low, and the 1994 ruling is in accord with his approach to scientific proof. A reviewer pointed out significant legal and scientific errors in the book. F
      40. C. Etnier, "Secrecy and the Young Researcher", Technol. Soc., 1986, 8, 267 - 271. F
      41. Dean Schooler, Science, Scientists and Public Policy, Free Press, New York, 1971. A discussion of ethics in scientific research and the public's right to know. g
      42. Cushing Strout, ed. Conscience, Science and Security: the Case of J. Robert Oppenheimer, Rand McNally, Chicago, 1963. DEF
      43. Daniel Ford, Meltdown: the Secret Papers of the Atomic Energy Commission, Touchstone (Simon and Schuster), NY, 1986. A startling history of the failure of government and industry to ensure safety and quality in reactor design, construction and operation. BEF
      44. *Grigori Medvedev, The Truth about Chernobyl, trans. by Evelyn Rossiter, Basic Books, 1991. This is a frightening book. Could it happen here? For a reality check, see old PBS videos "The Brown's Ferry Incident" and "We Almost Lost Detroit". EF
      45. Colin Norman, "Chernobyl: Errors and Design Flaws", Science, 1986, 233, 1029 - 1031. Technical flwas leading to the disaster. DEF
      46. Mike Edwards and Gerd Ludwig, "Soviet Pollution", Nat. Geog. Aug. 1994, 70 - 99; "Chornobyl", Nat. Geog. Aug. 1994. 100 - 115. A reminder of how much worse it could have been in North America, and nearly was. F
      47. Michael Freemantle, "Ten Years After Chernobyl Consequences Are Still Emerging", Chem. Eng. News 1996, April 29, 18 - 27. Richard Stone, "The Explosions that Shook the World", Science, 1996, 272, 352 - 354; Nigel Williams and Michael Balter, "Chernobyl Research Becomes Growth Industry" Science, 1996, 272, 355 - 356; Michael Balter, "Thyroid Cancer: Children Become the First Victims of Fallout", Science, 1996, 272, 357 - 160. Updates on the environmental, physiological, psychological and political impact. EF
      48. Monika Rennenberg and Mark Walker, Science, Technology and National Socialism, Cambridge U. Press, New York 1993. History buffs might want to examine how science survived the third Reich. BCDEF
      49. Debra Rosenthal, At the Heart of the Bomb. The Dangerous Allure of Weapons Work, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA 1990. Scientists who do weapons research vary in their motivations (from macho to idealistic) but all enjoy the challenge. Emphsizes the individual, and neglects the system. DEF C. G. Weeramantry, Nuclear Weapons and Scientific Responsibility, Longwood Academic, Wolfeboro, NH, 1987. F
      50. James P. Sterba, The Ethics of War and Nuclear Deterrence, Wadsworth, Baelmont, CA 1995. A collection of readings by a wide variety of writers on the morality(?) of war. Philosophical but of interest to the science major whose career may be in weapons or defense development - what do the politicians and philosophers have to say that should inform the scientist working on these projects? F
      51. Leonard A. Cole, The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare, W. H. Freeman, New York, 1996. CBW is an increasing threat and the Army has not responded well to the public's concerns. International terrorism finds these weapons easy to make and yet we almost did not sign the chemical warfare treaty. Not a thorough history or sociology but lots of useful snapshots. More on political issues than on science or scientists. FH
      52. A. Maureen Rouhi, "Land Mines: Horrors Begging for Solutions", Chem. Eng. News, 1997, March 10, 14 - 22. Chemists and physicists are helping to develop tools for detecting and deactivating mines, applying basic research to a huge international problem. Mines cost $3 - $15 to buy and nearly $1000 each to dispose of. Scientists are also involved in attempts to ban mines altogether, but many countries, including the USA, are unwilling to give up the option, in spite of their overuse. FH
      53. Michael Heylin, "After 40 Years, Treaty to Ban All Nuclear Weapons May Be At Hand", Chem. Eng. News, 1996, May 20, 10 - 18. History of testing and the nature of the treaty. DF
      54. Amy E. Smithson and Laurie H. Boulden, "Chemical Weapons: Neglected Menace", Issues Sci Technol. 1996, XII(3), 75 - 81. Easy to make, easy to hide... Article discusses the Chemical Weapons Convention and the need for it. BF
      55. Stephan Groueff, Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb, Little Brown and Co, Boston, 1967. CDEF
      56. Richard M. Price, The Chemical Weapons Taboo, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY, 1997. This book attempts to answer the question "why are chemical weapons so abhorent, more so than other weapons?" The approach is historical, sociological, political. Did you know that the USA was the only opponent of the first (1899) treaty banning chemical weapons? And that it too the US 50 years to ratify the Geneva Protocol? F
      57. Lois Ember, "Chemical Weapons Convention", Chem. Eng. News, 1998, June 1, 9. Just one article in an interesting story of why the USA only ratified this treaty, negotiated by the Bush administration and supported by the Clinton administration, at the last minute under great pressure from the White House. F
      58. Leonard A. Cole, The Eleventh Plague: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare, W. H. Freeman, NY, 1997. Mostly history but with the moral and ethical issues crucial to the discussion, especially of how we can build a study barrier to prevent the use of such weapons. FG
      59. Jessica Wang, American Science in an Age of Anxiety: Scientists, Anticommunism, and the Cold War, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1999. In the 1950's, things were as tough for scientists as they were for entertainers -- any sign of previous liberal thinking, especially about communism, could result in destruction of career. It could happen again, e.g. the recent restrictions on foreign-born scientists at Los Alamos. F
      60. "Control of Nuclear Arms at Crossroads", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, May 8, 49-54. An interview with nuclear physicist132.01 Richard Garwin who has served on multiple panels in every administration since Eisenhower, in which he explains why the USA must ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (recently ratified by Russia), not just to set an example, but because our national security depends on it. F
      61. Michael Frayn, Copenhagen . A play about a meeting between Heisenberg (a Nazi) and Bohr (a Dane) during the height of Hitler's occupation of Europe. Did Heisenberg hope to learn about the Allies' progress toward an atomic bomb? Reviewed in Science, Physics Today and Chem. Eng. News in April of 2000.
      62. Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom, Henry Holt & Co, 1999. The book attempts to show that biological weapons are not as easy to make and use as is commonly thought. See review in C&EN, March 6, 2000, p 65. FG
      63. Jonathan Moreno, Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans, Freeman, New York, 1999. Not just Germany and Japan, but the USA has conducted experiments on humans whose ability to give consent was compromised (prisoners and soldiers), many of which were revealed during the Clinton administration. Since some research is necessary to develop protections against chemical and biological warfare agesnt, the author suggests a model for ethical research. Review in Science, 2000, 287, 598-9. FG
      64. Steven M. Block, "The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons", Amer. Sci. 2001, 89, 28 - 37. Biological weapons have not been very effectively used by terrorists - yet. What can scientists do to minimize this threat? FG
      65. S. S. Schweber, In the Shadow of the Bomb: Oppenheimer, Bethe and the Moral Responsibility of the Scientist, Princeton U Press, Princeton, NJ 2000. Among other fundamental questions, the book asks and answers (at least for these scientists), "what is the role of the scientist in a democracy?" F
      66. Responsibility to the Public: Safety, Accuracy

      67. Robert D. Bullard, ed., Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1994
      68. Michael B. Gerard, Whose Backyard, Whose Risk: Fear and Fairness in Toxic and Nuclear Waste Siting, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1994. He actually suggests a solution: develop a needs statement, assigned by source state, and provide for a bid process for location within the state, with priority given to already contaminated sites.
      69. M. J. Fraser and A. Kornhauser, eds., Ethics and Social Responsibility of Science, ICSU Press, NY, 1986. F
      70. Henry Petroski, To Engineer is Human, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1985. Dramatic examples show convincingly that we all learn more by mistakes than successes. BF
      71. Albert Flores, ed., Ethics and Risk Management in Engineering, University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1989. A philosophical, economic, legal and technical analysis of risk and benefit. F
      72. Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies, Basic Books, New York, 1984. Examples include nuclear power plants such as Three Mile Island, marine disasters, dams, petrochemical plants, and early NASA near-disasters. DEF
      73. M. Granger Morgan, "Risk Analysis and Management", Scientific American, 1993, 269(1), 32 - 41. Risk perception by the public is a function of probability of death, of experience and of perceived lack of control. F
      74. J. L. Casti, Searching for Certainty, Morrow, NY, 1990.
      75. H. W. Lewis, Technological Risk, Norton, NY, 1990.
      76. J. V. Rodricks, Calculated Risks, Cambridge, NY, 1992.
      77. K. R. Foster, D. E. Bernstein, and P. W. Huber, eds., Phantom Risk: Scientific Inference and the Law, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1993. Critical reviews of real and perceived risks of chemicals and a discussion of current and appropriate standards for acceptability of scientific evidence in court using specific examples; as the title suggests, the theme is that risks are overrated. Bendectin, asbestos, PCBs, dioxin, etc. F
      78. Sisela Bok, "Freedom and Risk", Daedalus, 1978, 107, 115 - 127. AF
      79. Peter Huber, "Galileo's Revenge", Harper-Collins, NY 1991. An account of the results of scientific expert testimony in court, in particular, instructions from judges and rulings from juries that ignore solid scientific evidence. F
      80. Edward Tenner, Why Things Bite Back. Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences, Knopf, NY, 1996. Clever designs of scientists and engineers create unanticipated problems - e.g. chlorofluorocarbons as a safe alternative to ammonia in refrigeration turns out to damage the ozone layer. The author insists that avoidance is impossible, but that rapid response is possible. BF
      81. Mike Martin and Roland Schinziger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1983. One of many books on the ethical issues in engineering.
      82. Vivial Weil, ed. Beyond Whistleblowing: Defining Engineers' Responsibilities, IIT, CSEP, Chicago, 1983.
      83. Alastair S. Gunn and P. Aarne Vesilind, Environmental Ethics for Engineers, Lewis, Chelsea, MI, 1986. A discussion of ethical thought and environmental ethics, plus case studies, most of which are black-and-white.
      84. Linda M. Sweeting, "Who's responsible for chemophobia?", CHEMTECH, 1988, 476 - 478. A challenge to chemists. F
      85. Carl F. Cranor, Regulating Toxic Substances: A Philosophy of Science and Law, Oxford U. Press, NY, 1993. The author believes that standards are currently too low, and the 1994 ruling is in accord with his approach to scientific proof. A reviewer pointed out significant legal and scientific errors in the book. F
      86. Paul Brodeur, Outrageous Misconduct: The Asbestos Industry on Trial, Pantheon, New York, 1985. How lobbying by the asbestos producers prevented workers from being protected for many years after the hazard was known and understood. F
      87. Paul Brodeur, The Great Powerline Coverup: how the utilities and the government are trying to hide the cancer hazard posed by electromagnetic fields, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 1993. How statistically significant are the cancers found in the Denver neighborhood laced with high-voltage lines?? This reporter thinks dangerously so, but the scientific evidence is weak - search for recent articles for the other side of this controversy. F
      88. Paul Brodeur, The Zapping of America: Microwaves, their Deadly Risk and the Coverup, Norton, New York, 1977. Is your microwave oven shortening your life? This reporter thinks so, but not all scientists agree; check the literature for recent evidence. F
      89. Paul Brodeur, Expendable Americans, Viking Press, New York, 1974. An expose of the occupational hazards to workers knowingly perpetrated and perpetuated by their employers. Are they as bad as this reporter claims? DF
      90. M. Fumento, Science under Siege: Balancing Technology and the Environment, Morrow, NY, 1993. Discussions of Alar, Agent Orange, gasohol, electric and magnetic fields, VDT's, food irradiation, etc., with an emphasis on epidemiology and risk evaluation. Might be a good companion to Brodeur's books. BFG
      91. L. Caglioti, The Two Faces of Chemistry, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1983. Risk and reward in technology. F
      92. Ward Morehouse and M. Arun Subramanian, The Bhopal Tragedy: What Really Happened and What It Means for American Workers and Communities at Risk, Council on Intl & Public Affairs, NY, 1986. The book is unremittingly hostile to Uniion Carbide. Written by members of the citizens' committee. Look for more recent discussions. EF
      93. Robert Benjamin, "Reports find Aberdeen plant rife with danger.", Baltimore Sun, 1986, 86(13) March 30, A1, A14. An early report of many on the waste chemical warfare agents, munitions, and ingredients used to make them scattered around APG. Burn the stuff on site or ship it to the south Pacific? Which is safer? Lots of questions raised by their activities. The US Govt is not bound by most of the EPA laws. F
      94. Michael Gough, Dioxin, Agent Orange: The Facts, Plenum, NY, 1986. In spite of the title, a reasonably balanced presentation of the risks and science. Now out-dated, since much nore is now known about the toxicity and distribution of dioxin. EF
      95. Bette Hileman, "Views Differ Sharply Over Benefits, Risks of Agricultural Biotechnology", Chem. Eng. News, 1995, Aug. 21, 8 - 17. Are genetically engineered products acceptable to the public? Science, ownership and regulatory issues. FG
      96. Linda Raber, "Green Chemistry Challenge", Chem. Eng. News. 1996, July 15, 9 - 10. A report on the first Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards, given for safer anti-foulant marine paint, blowing polystyrene foam with carbon dioxide (instead of CFC's), and a safer way of making "Roundup". FH
      97. Chris G. Whipple. "Can Nuclear Waste Be Stored Safely at Yucca Mountain?" Sci. Amer. 1996, June, 72 - 79. A discussion of the pros and cons of burial, and the geology of that particular site. F
      98. John Wargo, Our Children's Toxic Legacy. How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us from Pesticides, Yale U. Press, New Haven, CT 1996. The scientific information is often incomplete when regulatory decisions are made, since long-term effects are often species specific. We are so dependent on pesticides that we cannot get off the treadmill. The book shows that we need to focus on managing pests, not managing pesticides. FG
      99. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson Myers, Our Stolen Future, This book makes the point that exposure to a wide variety of hormone-mimics may be compromising our endocrine systems, etc. Is this scare tactics or another Silent Spring? Recent repeated studies show that estrogen mimics are not synergistic. Perhaps a more reasoned (and more technical) discussion is found in John A. McLachlan and Steven F. Arnold, "Environmental Estrogens", Amer. Sci., 1996, 84, 452 - 461. FGH
      100. Janet Raloff, "Drugged Waters", Science News, 1998, 153, 187 - 189. Waters in Europe and North America are contaminated with drugs and their metabolites, some given only to humans, others to cattle, not from factory waste but human and animal waste. The potential for environmental damage is significant, and most obvious for things like estrogens. FH
      101. Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Mad Cow USA: Could the Nightmare Happen Here?, Common Courage Press, Monroe, ME, 1997. When fatal BSE began to sweep through the British cattle inductry, health and farm authorities denied, dismissed and discredited reports of it, and denied any connection to human disease. Good book for vegetarians. FGH
      102. Michael Zimmerman, Science, Nonscience and Nonsense. Approaching Environmental Literacy, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. This book is an account of the battle between creatists and Darwinian evolutionists. Too bad -- the title suggests more, and there is a revolt against the improved education students are getting in environmental issues. FGH
      103. Jeff Johnson, "Accident Board Stumbles Ahead", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Jan 3, 18 - 20. The new Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSHIB) is trying to do for chemistry what the NTSB has done for transportation -- analyze accidents and develop preventive measures. But underfunding, politics, differing perceptions about mission priorities and personalities are hampering the startup. F
      104. Cheryl Hogue, "Chemical Testing Could be Delayed", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Feb 28, 30 - 31. An agreement between EPA, Environmental Defense (see their newsletter, Vol XXXI (2), June 2000, 5) and the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), all of the high-production-volume chemicals will be tested for toxicity. Since the testing requires animals, animal rights activists (e.g. PETA, National AntiVivisection Society) have objected. FG
      105. Jocelyn Kaiser, "No Meeting of Minds on Childhood Cancer", Science, 1999, 286, 1832 - 4. Cancer in children is increasing -- is the trend caused by pollution or EM? is it real or is it an artifact of better diagnosis? FG
      106. Deborah G. Mayo and Rachelle D. Hollander, eds, Acceptable Evidence:Science and Values in Risk Management, Oxford University Press, 1991. The essays provide a diversity of perspectives to encourage rational approaches to emotional issues of risk. F
      107. Martin Gardner, Did Adam and Eve Have Navels? - Discourses on Reflexology, Numerology, Urine Therapy, and Other Dubious Subjects, Norton, 1999. The editor for Scientific American's mathematics column takes on phony science. Each essay was originally published in the Skeptical Inquirer BF
      108. Cheryl Hogue, "Describing Chemical Risk", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Sep 25, 34-6. Finding a better way to evaluate and communicate risk - MSDS's make everything sound dangerous - in EPA's IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System). DF
      109. Ulrich Hoffrage, Samuel Lindsey, Ralph Hertwig, Gerd Gigerenzer, "Communicating Statistical Information", Science, 2000, 290, 2261-2. Presenting statistical data as percentages results in far poorer understanding of the data than presenting is as frequencies, i.e. 2 in 10,000 will get the disease and 1 test in 2 gives a false positive. They make recommendations for teaching statistics and presenting them based on their study. BF
      110. Laura Manuelidis, "Penny Wise, Pound Foolish - A Retrospective", Science, 2000, 290, 2257. This letter to the editor describes failure of a scientific panel to respond to data indicating that "mad cow disease" could be transmitted to people and suggests a very big story. Author is a researcher in the field. FG
      111. Joe Thornton, Pandora's Poison: Chlorine, Health, and a New Environmental Strategy, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 2000. The case against chlorinated substances is presented by a journalist, with a proposal for preventing pollution. The positive impact of natural and man-made organochlorine compounds is not given muct attention. FG
      112. Gordon W. Gribble, "Natural Organohalogens - Many More Than You Think", J. Chem. Educ., 1994, 71, 907 - 911; "Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds", Accts. Chem. Res., 1998, 31, 141 - 152; "The Natural Production of Organobromine Compounds", Environ. Sci.& Pollut. Res. 2000, 7, 37 - 49; "Chlorine - Element from hell or gift from God? The scientific side of the chlorine story" Technology, 1999, 6, 193-201. Recent demands to prevent exposure to chlorinated organics fail to take into account the fact that they are pervasive in nature - and even the man-made ones have some redeeming social value. Let us hope that common sense prevails to reduce tetrachlorodioxin exposure (for example) without making the eating of fish or seaweed (in ice cream) illegal. FG
      113. Linda Raber, "ACS Takes Public's Pulse", Chem. Eng. News, 2000 Oct 9, 60-1. The public thinks hjighly of chemists but not of the chemical industry or of chemicals. Does this indicate that we have not done our job? F
      114. Responsibility to the Public to Provide Good Science and Correct Junk Science

      115. Neal E. Miller, The Scientist's Responsibility for Public Information: a Guide to Effective Communication with the Media, Society for Neuroscience, Bethesda, MD 1978. F
      116. June Goodfield, Reflections on Science and the Media, AAAS, Washington, DC 1981.
      117. Gerald Holton, Science and Anti-Science, Harvard, Cambridge, MA, 1993. A case-study, historical approach to the sources of anti-science views. F
      118. William Burrows, "Science Meets the Press: Bad Chemistry", Sciences, 1980 (April), 15
      119. Susanna Hornig, "Television's 'Nova' and the Construction of Scientific Truth", Critical Studies in Mass Commun. 1990, 7, 11 -
      120. Susanna Hornig, "Science Stories: Risk, Power and Perceived Emphasis", Journalism Quarterly, 1990 (winter), 67, 263 -
      121. John Emsley, The Consumer's Good Chemical Guide, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1994. One chemist's attempt to provide accurate and readable information about various chemicals that consumers encounter, from perfume to pesticides and ozone. F
      122. Carl Djerassi, From the Lab into the World: A Pill for People, Pets and Bugs, ACS, Washington, DC, 1994. Essays on the impact of science on modern life. CFH
      123. Janet Raloff, "Dowsing Expectations", Sci. News, 1995, 148, 90 - 91. Is there a scientific basis for dowsing? BF
      124. Elisabeth Pennisi, "Chemicals Behind the Gulf War Syndrome", Science, 1996, 272, 479 - 480. A news report on a conference. After much study and rhetoric, it appears that the symptoms were probably caused by the preventive measures - heavy doses of insecticides and anti-nerve agent drugs. FG
      125. Christian de Duve, Vital Dust: Life as a Cosmic Imperative, Basic Books, NY, 1995. This complex discussion of the origins of life attempts to bridge some of the gap between science and philosophy. Reviews enthusiastic. AF
      126. M. Alice Ottoboni, The Dosage Makes the Poison, Vincente Books, Berkeley, 1984. A scientist uses her expertise to inform the public about toxicology. F
      127. Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues, Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995. Described by a reviewer as "an odd combination of comfort and outrage", but generally errs on the side of minimizing the demons of exposure to man-made toxics. FGH
      128. Harry Collins and Trevor Pinch, The Golem: What Everyone Should Know about Science, . The authors, sociologists, set out to give the average person a better idea of how science is done. They correctly emphasize the importance of the culture of science in the acceptance of theories, but manages to miss the fact that scientists reach agreement about new theories because of their ability to explain physical reality. By following only certain experimental threads, the ones canonized in texts, the miss the fact that other experiments were also contributing to our understanding of phenomena. Emphasizes physics. See excellent reviews by David Mermin in Physics Today, March 1996, 11, 13 and April 1996, 11 and 13.
      129. James Gilbert, Redeeming Culture: American Religion in an Age of Science, Univ Chicago Press, 1997. The book examines the continuing dialogue between science and religion, particularly in the USA, and the role of democracy in the dialogue. He warns about the danger of anti-elitism in popular culture. F
      130. Ann M. Thayer, "Information Overload?" Chem. Eng. News, 1998, July 13, 23-8. EPA has take right-to-know legislation seriously and put everything it can on the WWW, including waste sites and pollution sources by zip code. And it is being organized so as to be useful. FH
      131. Charles Coulston Gillespie, Genesis and Geology, Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA 1996. This book discusses the scientific discoveries before Darwin that presented major challenges to the literal interpretation of Genesis, especially the concept that "creation" has a purpose. FG

      132. P. Huber, Galileo's Revenge, Junk Science in the Courtroom, Basic Books / Harper Collins, NY 1991. A critical analysis of the legal histories of thalidomide, bendectin, the Audi 5000 and "chemical AIDS". This reporter believes that anecdotes, prejudice and fraud have been used to try and convict science in the court. BFG
      133. Robert G. Jahn, "The Persistent Paradox of Psychic Phenomena: An Engineering Perspective", Proc. IEEE, 1982, 7, 136 - 170. Attempts to model theoretically and demonstrate experimentally such things as ESP and PK. BF
      134. Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things, Freeman, San Francisco, 1997?. The author is president of the Skeptics Society and a historian of science. He has studied why so many people believe in ghosts, alien abductions, ESP, that the Holocaust never happened, etc., a subject he has tackled head-on in TV confrontations on Oprah and Unsolved Mysteries. One way a scientist can make a difference to the public. BF
      135. Paul Kurtz, "The Growth of Antiscience", Skeptical Inquirer, 1994, spring.
      136. Paul Feyerabend, "How to Defend Society against Science", Radical Philosophy, 1970, 2, 4 - 8. F
      137. Steven L. Goldman, "Images of Technology in Popular Films: Discussion and Filmography", Sci. Technol. Human Values, 1989, 14, 275 - 301.
      138. Benson Saler, Charles A. Ziegler, and Charles B. Moore, UFO Crash at Roswell. The Genesis of a Modern Myth, Smithsonian Inst Press, Washington, DC 1997. The legend of 1947 alien landings, government autopsies and government suppression are laid to rest with this book which has pictures of the actual ballon launches and remaining fragments. The original document (book) was rejected by its authors but the myth has persisted. Good sociology and an important public service. BF
      139. Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition and Other Confusions of Our Time, Open Court Publishing, 1997. The eternal search for meaning results in our being easily lead astray. F
      140. Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark, Random House, NY, 1996. Sagan takes the skeptic's approach to UFO's, witches, visions, alien abductions - what is the evidence and what are the alternative explanations. He also discusses the common view that scientific consensus is often wrong and can and should be ignored if it is politically or personally inconvenient. F
      141. Charles Coulston Gillispie, Genesis and Geology, Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge, MA, 1996. This book goes into the scientific and social background of the theory of evolution. Since the discussion is still with us, it may be of interest to those who wish to explain evolution to laypersons. F
      142. Jon Entine, "Rain Forest Chic", Toronto Globe and Mail Report on Business Magazine, October 1995, also published on his web page at Ben and Jerry and the Body Shop have made a lot of faithful customers with their claim of eco-friendly ingredients and support of indigenous peoples. The truth is quite different from the claims - no more than 1% of B&J's Brazil nuts are harvested in the forest as once claimed. FG
      143. Responsibility of the Public

      144. Issues in Peer Review of the Scientific Basis for Regulatory Decisions, American Chemical Society brochure, 1985. CF
      145. Dorothy Nelkin, Selling Science: How the Press Covers Science and Technology, W. H. Freeman, New York, 1987. F
      146. Sharon M. Friedman, Sharon Dunwoody and Carol L. Rogers, eds., Scientists and Journalists: Reporting Science as News, AAAS, Washington, DC 1986. F
      147. David W. Burkett, Writign Science News for the Mass Media, Gulf, Houston, TX 1973.
      148. Robert B. McCall, "Science and Press: Like Oil and Water?" Amer. Psychologist, 1988, 43, 87 - . F
      149. Lee Wilkins and Philip Patterson, eds. Risky Business: Communicating Issues of Science, Risk and Public Policy, Greenwood Press, New York, 1991. F
      150. Carl Djerassi, The Politics of Contraception, Norton, NY, 1980. F
      151. Frans C. Verhagen, Energy and Equity: a Selected Research and Action Bibliography, Vance Bibliographies, Monticello, IL, 1984. This may lead you to other books - you don't just read a bibliography. F
      152. Z. A. Medvedev, The Rise and Fall of T. D. Lysenko, Columbia Univ. Press, NY, 1969. The chilling story of political coercion of scientific thought, keeping the USSR out of genetic research for generations. Could it happen here, for example in not teaching evolution? EFG
      153. Francisco J. Ayala and Bert Black, "Science and the Courts", American Scientist, 1993, 81, 230 - 239. Expert testimony, the scientific methods and the law. BCF
      154. Virginia Morell, "Who Owns the Past?", Science, 1995, 268, 1424 - 1426. Usually, archaelogical finds are studied and returned to the group who claims to be decendants. Further information is lost because they are moved. In some cases, permission to study remains is refused. Who does own the past? F
      155. Dorothy Nelkin and M. Susan Lindee, The DNA Mystique: The Gene as Cultural Icon, W. H. Freeman & CO., New York, 1995. Popular culture claims that heredity is all - "my genes made me do it" - an approach which provides an reason/excuse for success and failure, for criminals and geniuses. What happened to hard work? Can and should scientists correct such misuses and distortions? FG
      156. Carl Sagan, "What TV Could Do For America", Parade, 1995 (June 4), 10 -11. For one thing, portray scientists as something other than evil geniuses. For another, inform about science, and distinguish it from fantasy like the X-Files, The Twilight Zone, Star Trek. F
      157. James Wiggins, Freedom or Secrecy, Oxford U. Press, New York, 1964. The grey areas we all have to thinks about. F
      158. William Spinrad, Civil Liberties, Quadrangle Books, Chicago, 1970. Discusses secrecy and security in government and private organizations. F
      159. Stephen Breyer, "The Interdependence of Science and Law", Science, 1998, 280, 537 - 538. A supreme court justice points out the number of science- related cases in the courts and the need for making decisions based on sound science that reflects the state of the art. An interesting discussion of ways of using scientific testimony more effectively in court. BF
      160. Stu Borman, "End Run around FDA?", Chem. Eng. News, 1998, June 1, 45-7. Huperzine is being sold on the internet as a memory enhancer like Alzheimer drugs under the guise of a "nutraceutical". There are many other drugs in the same situation: herbal ecstasy (plant extract of amphetamines), creatine, echinaceae, etc. Good lead article for a paper. BF
      161. The Sokal Hoax, The Sham that Shook the Academy, Editors of Lingua Franca, eds, U of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE 2000. Alan Sokal published an article in a sociology journal which drew social analogies to quantum mechanics,etc. At the moment of publication, he revealed that it was a hoax, designed to illustrate that the postmodernist criticism of science (as being all in the mind and having no physical reality) was so lacking in intelligent thought that this nonsense was reviewed and published. Who was being unethical here? BF
      162. Cheryl Hogue, "U.S. Exports of Hazardous Waste to Canada Continue to Rise", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Nov 13, 26. What can either country be thinking of? Where are the ethics of their representatives and (government) employees? FH

    8. Major Issues in Biology, Medicine, Computer Science, Engineering etc.
      1. Archaeology, Anthropology and Sociology

      2. Constance Holden. "Bones Decision Rattles Researchers", Science, 2000, 289, 2257. Kennewick man apparently predates the native populations of Washington state and is more European, but the court has ruled that research must stop so the natiuve American tribes of the area can rebury the bones. Canadian first peoples have a different attitude, which encourages learning about their prehistory as long as respect is given. Being a field archaeologist must be tough. FG
      3. Charles C. Mann, "Misconduct Alleged in Yanomamo Studies" Science, 2000, 289, 2251,3. Are they warlike or peaceful, how did anthropologists develop such different pictures? FG
      4. Pat Shipman, "Doubting Dimansi", Amer. Sci. 2000, 88, 491 - 4. This description of how a humanoid jaw was doubted and came to be accepted illustrates how scientific skepticism and replication helps to ensure correct conclusions, even when prejudice increases the doubts. BCD
      5. Biology - General

      6. Ruth E. Bulger, Elizabeth Heitman and Stanley J. Reiser, eds., The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological Sciences, Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1993. The ethical basis of science, self-deception, guidelines for authorship, fraud and some specific examples. BCDEFG
      7. Edward Erwin, Sidney Gendin and Lowell Kleiman, eds., Ethical Issues in Scientific Research, Garland Publishing, NY, 1993. An anthology of articles mostly about biomedical and sociological research: values, fraud, human subjects, and animal, genetic and military research. BFG
      8. Marian Stamp Dawkins and Morris Gosling, eds., Ethics in Research on Animal Behaviour, Academic Press, for the Assoc. Study Animal Behav. and Animal Behav. Soc., London. Includes guidelines for the use of animals in research and essays of specific issues, such as numbers, pain, aggression. G
      9. Jean Rostand, Error and Deception in Science: Essays on the Biological Aspects of Life, tr. A. J. Pomerantz, Hutchison, London, 1960 BG
      10. Michael Ruse, Monad to Man: The Concept of Progess in Evolutionary Biology, Harvard U. Press, Cambride, MA, 1996. The concept that evolution is progess has been responsible for much of the conflict over the theory and the book traces the history of the resistance to the theory with this in mind. The book itself is controversial, and has received mixed reviews; it is important reading for anyone intrested in the religious objections to evolution. Did the scientists overstate the range of application of the theory? Probably. BFG
      11. Ruth Ellen Bulger, The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological Sciences, Cambridge U, Press, NY, 1993. A broad discussion of all the issues in biology, including many, like publication ethics, that are common to all the sciences. ABCG
      12. T. Dobzhansky, Mankind Evolving, Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, CT, 1962. The book deals with evolution itself and with ethical questions arising from conceiving of man as a product of evolution. G
      13. G. R. Taylor, The Biological Time Bomb, Thames and Hudson, London, 1968. An early look at the potential of the biosciences, the human population and the ethical issues they raise. FG
      14. David J. Miller and Michael Hersen, eds., Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences, Wiley, NY, 1992. BG
      15. E. J. Farnsworth and J. Rosovsky, "The Ethics of Ecological Field Experimentation" Conserv. Biol., 1993, 7, 463 - 472. GHI
      16. S. T. Emlen, "Ethics and field experimentation: hard choices for the field ornithologist", Auk, 1993, 110, 406 - 409. GHI
      17. D. J. Decker, et al, "Ethical and scientific judgements in management: beware of blurred distinctions", Wildl. Soc. Bull., 1991, 19, 523 - 527. GHI
      18. A. G. Heath, "Professional Ethics for Research Biologists", BioScience, 1989, 39, 472 - 474. GI
      19. Matthew H. Nitecki and Doris V. Nitecki, eds. Evolutionary Ethics, State University of New York Press, Albany . Sociobiological and other ways to look at evolutionary ethics. G
      20. Paul Thompson, ed. Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, State Universtiy of New York Press, Albany . Articles which examine whether and how evolutionary theory is relevant to ethics. FG
      21. Stephen R. Kellert, The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society, Island Press, 1996. Nine types of values are associated with biodiversity, including utilitarian, aesthetic, humanistic, negativistic, compared with regard to importance to various demographic groups and implications for management and conservation. G
      22. Ruth Ellen Bulger, et al, eds. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological Sciences, Cambridge Univ Press, 199 . Readings on the foundations of sciecne, self-deception, responsible conduct, authorship, human and animal subjects, academia, industry and society. ABCG
      23. Robert T. Pennock, The Tower of Babel: The Evidence against the New Creationism, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1999. Pennock discusses the "argument by design" source for creationist ideas and tries to show that it results in an ever-shifting "God of the gaps". He discusses the controversy over what should be taught in the schools and other approaches to "where we came from" besides Christian creationism and evolution, and some of the ways that Christians who are scientists think about both science and religion. Especially he tries to debunk the idea that science is inherently anti-religious. FG
      24. Aaron Ridley, beginning bioethics -- a text with integrated readings, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1998. Ethical theories, perspectives and methods of consideration are applied to a discussion of the rights of patients, reproduction issues, death and dying, human and animal subjects and health care policy. Appropriate cases in the book by Crigger. G
      25. Bette-Jane Crigger, Cases in bioethics. Selections from the Hastings Center Report, third edition, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1998. Short cases with commentaries by experts in the field -- rights of patients, reproduction issues, death and dying, human and animal subjects and health care policy. Organization matches book by Ridley. G
      26. Robert T. Pennock, The Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999. A philosopher specializing in science uses the parallels between linguistic and biological evolution to expose the weakness in the creationist arguments. FG
      27. A. Minelli, O. Krauss, P. K. Tubbs, "Names for Cash", Science, 2000, 287, 1203-4 and S. Steghaus-Kovac, "Researchers cash in on personalized species names", 421. Is it ethical to fund your research by selling names, i.e. naming the organism or star you discover after a donor who signs on for that specific purpose (the unsought honor of a named item is an old tradition)? BG
      28. David E. Bloom and David Canning, "The Health and Wealth of Nations" Science, 2000, 287, 1207 - 9. There is a positive correlation between health and wealth in the nations of the world -- whic is cause and which effect dramatically affects policy decisions FG
      29. Ullica Segerstrale, Defenders of the Truth: The Battle for Science in the Sociobiology Debate and Beyond, Oxford U. Press, 2000. The idea that evolutionary ideas about behavior could be applied to humans ignited controversy about the science and exposed different conceptions of values too. This book favors the sociobiologists, and focusses on the great men in the debates. BFG
      30. Jocelyn Kaiser "Taking a Stand: Ecologists on a Mission to Save the World", "Taking a Stand: A Reluctant Warrior", "Taking a Stand: Role Model for Ecology's Generation X"; Kathryn S. Brown, "Transforming a Discipline: A New Breed of Scientist-Advocate Emerges", "Transforming a Discipline: At Home on the Range". A series of articles in Science, 2000, 18 Feb, and on line at Science's Next Wave site which explore the ethical dillemmas of ecologists and the conflict between being an impartial scientist reporting what you see and an advocate for saving the ecology you and others study. FG
      31. Biology - Genetics and Cell

      32. Allen Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: the Social Costs of the New Scientific Racism, Knopf, NY, 1977. BFG
      33. Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity, Knopf, NY, 1985. The author is a reporter. BFG
      34. Robert Cook-Deegan, The Gene Wars: Science, Politics, and the Human Genome, Norton, NY, 1995. During the late 1980's, there was warfare in big biology over big bucks. No exceptionally bad guys, just everyone out for themselves - and for more money to molecular biology. BCD
      35. Rene von Schomberg, ed., Contested Technology. Ethics, Risk and Public Debate, Intl Centre for Human and Public Affairs, Tilburg, Netherlands, 1995. Biotechnology and genetic engineering. FG
      36. Walter Bodner and Robin McKie, The Book of Man: The Human Genome Project and the Quest to Discover Our Genetic Heritage, Simon and Shuster, New York, 1995. A comprehensive survey of potential effects of the project on health care, etc. It emphasizes the benefits, and only discusses moral issues at the end. G
      37. T. Murray, "Ethical Issues in Genetic Engineering", Social Res., 1975, 471 - 489. FG
      38. T. Murray, "Ethical issues in Human Genome Research", FASEB J., 1991. 5, 55 - 60. FG
      39. R. Sinsheimer, "Genetic Engineering: Life as Plaything", Technol. Rev., 1983, 4, 14, 15, 20. BFG
      40. R. C. Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA, Harper Perennial, NY, 1992. What is the purpose of the genome project? Will it produce a standard DNA (whose?) by which others are evaluated? Does the DNA sequence define the person? Very thoughtful. FG
      41. Neil A. Holtzman, Proceed with Caution: Predicting Genetic Risks in the Recombinant DNA Era, The Johns Hopkins U. Press, Baltimore, 1989. FGH
      42. Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy E. Hood, The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA 1992. FG
      43. Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan, Improving Nature: The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1996. Ethical concerns for the whole spectrum of life, the risks and benefits of genetic engineering and the decisions we have to make. FG
      44. Ruth F. Chadwick, ed. Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control, Routledge, NY 1992. FG
      45. John Roslansky, ed., Genetics and the Future of Man, Appleton-Century-Crofts, NY, 1966. Some examples of misused intelligence testing. The book is a little old. G
      46. Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan, Improving Nature? The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering, Cambidge U. Presss, New York, 1996. Although neither ethics nor biology can provide conclusive answers about the rightness and wrongness of genetic engineering, they can present the risks and benefits so we can choose. G
      47. David C. Thomasma and Thomasine Kushner, eds., Birth to Death: Science and Bioethics. Critical issues that face our society because of biological advances. A collection of essays. G
      48. Robert H. Blank, The Political Implications of Genetic Technology, G
      49. Thomas Mappes and David DeGrazia, Biomedical Ethics, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. G
      50. Gregory E. Pence, Who's Afraid of Human Cloning, Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. The author argues that we should not fear cloning but examine it as another reproductive option. G
      51. Gregory E. Pence, Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. A Reader, Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. Comments from philosophers and bioethicists and religious leaders. G
      52. Anne Donchin and Laura Purdy, Feminist Perspectives on Bioethics, Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. They discuss transforming bioethics practice, reproduction and cultural diversity. CDEG
      53. Gina Kolata, Clone, Wm Morrow & CO, NY, 1998. The story of the ewe Dolly, along with science's cultural dynamics and ethics. FG
      54. Andrew Brown, The Darwin Wars. How Stupid Genes Became Selfish Gods, Simon and Shuster, London, 1999. About the arguments over sociobiology. G Lois Wingerson, Unnatural Selection: The Promise and the Power of Human Gene Research, Bantam Books, 1998. A history of the eugenics movement, originally a "liberal" idea, and a discussion of the implications of human genetic engineering. G
      55. Kelly Owens and Mary-Claire King, "Genomic Views of Human History", Science, 199, 286, 451-3. Many of the factors which can be examined by genetics such as migration patterns, diversity, the nature of race have big ethical components, and are hot-button issues. If there is more genetic diversity within populations than between "racial" averages, what does race mean?. FG
      56. Mildred K. Cho et al, "Ethical Considerations in Synthesizing a Minimal Genome", Science, 1999, 286, 2087 - 2090. What is the minimum set of genes to create an organism such as a human? How do we decide? Who owns this genome? Will this search enable us to define life? The idea reduces the organism to a set of genes -- is this true and is this ethical? What about free willand our rational and religious life? G
      57. Rachel Gray, "Genetic Discrimination Banned", Prof. Ethics Report of AAAS, Winter 2000. A report on Pres. Clinton's signing of an Executive Order prohibiting genetic discrimination in the workplace. He also endorsed the Genetic Nondiscrimination in Health Insurance and Employment Act of 1999. G
      58. Michael Heylin, "Biotechnology Steps in It Again Down on the Farm", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Dec.11, 42. This editorial blasts the current US corporate proponents of genetically engineered organisms who are at best blinded by enthusiasm Monsanto learned its lesson, now Aventis must pay for careless marketing of StarLink (with Bt insecticidal protein). See Monsanto's new policy at FG
      59. Glenn McGee, The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics, 2nd Ed, Rowman and Littlefield, 2000. Ethical issues in high-tech reproduction gene therapy, cloning, stem cell research, etc. G
      60. Mairin Brennan, "Inherit the Gene - Safely and Ethcally", Chem. Eng News, 2000, Oct 9, 54-5. A descrption of a AAAS student and report, next in the list. G
      61. Mark Frankel and Audrey Chapman, Human Inheritable genetic Modifications: Assessing Scientific, Ethical, Religious, and Policy Issues, AAAS, Washington DC 2000. From the Science and Human Rights Program, Dialogue on Science, Ethics and Religion, Looking to the future, do we consider genetically engineering changes to the germ line? G
      62. Carol Levine, Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Bioethical Issues, 9th Ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 2001. Medical decision-making, death and dying, choices in reproduction. G
      63. Biology - Environmental and Animals

      64. Bryan A. Norton, Michael Hutchins, Elizabeth F. Stevens, and Terry Maple, eds. Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare and Wildlife Conservation, Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1995. Discussions of priorities (rare species or ecosystems, e.g.) and principles. Recommended by Roger Birkel, director of the Baltimore Zoo. GH
      65. Jocelyn Kaiser, "Ecologists on a Mission to Save the World", Science, 2000, 287, 1188 - 1192. Does an ecologist risk losing the trust of the public when he/she becomes an advocate for saving a particular species or ecosystem or for a particular solution to an environmental problem? FGH
      66. Kathryn S. Brown, "A New Breed of Scientist-Advocate Emerges", Science, 2000, 287, 1192 - 1195. Conservation biologists and managers of public and private lands learn to work together to ensure that deicisions are made on the best possible scientific basis, so that they will stand up to any scrutiny. FGH
      67. "Sierra Club Environmental Justice Priniciples", Chesapeake, the newsletter of the Sierra CLub, Maryland Chapter, Jan/Feb, 2000, 3. To ensure that all peoples have a clean and healthy environment, the Club supports the rights of all to democracy, participation, equal protection, know, sustainable environmental benefits, equity, generational equity, native people. FGH
      68. R. E. Bulger, "The Use of Animals in Experimental Research: A Scientist's Perspective", Anatomical Record, 1987, 219, 215 - 222. G
      69. Arthur L. Caplan, "Beastly Conduct: Ethical Issues in Animal Experimentation", in "The Role of Animals in Research", Annals NY Acad. Sci. 1983, 406, 159 - 169. FGH
      70. L. Horton, "The Enduring Animal Issue", J. Natl. Cancer Instit. 1989, 81, 736 - 743. FGH
      71. John Kaplan, "The Use of Animals in Research, Science, 1988, 242, 839 - 840. FGH
      72. Marvin Snyder, "We Have a Moral Obligation to Continue Conducting Research Using Animals", Chron. Higher Educ. 1989, Jan. 18. FGH Stephen St. C. Bostock, ed. Zoos and Animal Rights, Routledge, NY, 1993. History and present status, moral issues in conservation. FG
      73. Robert M. Baird and Stuart E. Rosenbaum, Animal Experimentation: The Moral Issues, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, 1991. G
      74. Joan E. Sieber, Planning Ethically Responsible Research: A Guide for Students and Internal Review Boards, Sage Piublications, 1992. BCG
      75. William M. S. Russel and Rex L. Burch, The Principle of Humane Experimental Technique, Methuen, London, 1959. This book is probably the bible of the animal rights movement and was the first to propose "reduce, replace and refine" as means to reduce animal suffering for scientific and medical research and education. G
      76. Tom Regan, The Case for Animal Rights, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1983. G
      77. Peter Singer and Tom Regan, Animal Rights and Human Obligation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. An interesting collection of essays by notable folks. G
      78. W. Jean Dodds and F. Barbara Orlans, Scientific Perspectives in Animal Welfare, Academic Press, NY, 1982. G
      79. D. Jamieson, "Ethics and Animals: A Brief Review", J. Ag. Envir. Ethics, 1993, 6, 15 - 20. G
      80. Peter Carruthers, The Animals Issue, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1992. G
      81. Daniel Cohen, Animal Rights, Millbrook Press, Brookfield CT,1993.
      82. James M. Jasper and Dorothy Nelkin, The Animal Rights Crusade, The Free Press, New York, 1992. G
      83. Carol Levine, Taking Sides, Dushkin Publishing Group, Guilford, CT 1995. G
      84. Bernard E. Rollin, Animal Rights and Human Morality, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY 1992. AG
      85. B. P. Robert Stephen Silverman, Defending Animals' Rights Is the Right Thing to Do, Shapolsky Pub., New York, 1994. G
      86. Peter Singer, Animal Liberation, Avon Books, New York, 1990. One of the key books examining the philosophical basis and reality of our treatment of animals. G
      87. Madeleine Klein Anderson, New Zoos, Carousel Press, Albany, CA 1995. G
      88. Geoge Rabb, "The Changing Roles of Zoos", The Economist, 1997, June. G
      89. Patrick Bateson, "When to Experiment on Animals" New Scientist, 1986, Feb 20, 30 - 32. An examination of possible conservative experimental designs to ensure that animals are not used unnecessarily. G
      90. Thomas L. Beauchamp, "The Moral Standing of Animals in Research" , The Journal of Law, Medicine and Health Care, 1992, 20(1-2), 7 - 16. An examination of attitudes expressed by scientists and a critical evaluation of cognition as a model for evaluating differences between humans and animals. G
      91. Jerod M. Loeb, "Human vs Animal Rights. In Defense of Animal Research", JAMA, 1989, 262 (19), 2716 - 2720. A history and evaluation of the current state of research using animals, alternatives and the extent of animal use. G
      92. Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA, "Animals in Research", JAMA, 1989, 261(24), 3602 - 3606. An enumeration of the successes in human and animal health resulting from animal research. G
      93. F. Barbara Orlans, In the Name of Science. Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation, Oxford Univ Press, 1993. This book tries to find a middle road, rather than an extremist position. G
      94. Andrew N. Rowan, "The Benefits and Ethics of Animal Research"; Neal D. Barnard and Stephen R. Kaufmanm "Animal Research is Wasteful and Misleading"; Jack Botting and Adrain R. Morrison, "Animal Research is Vital to Medicine"; Madhusree Mukherjee, "Trends in Animal Research"; Scientifuc American, 1997, Feb, 79 - 93. Data, philosophy and opinion from physicians, scientists, and writers. G
      95. Jim Nollman, "The Secret Language of the Wild", Temple Grandin, "How to Think Like and Animal", Cathy Madison, "Mind Leap", Richard Nelson, "The Hunt", Utne Reader, 1998, April, 40 - 55. A series of articles on communicating with animals and comments on animal rights - more emotional than scientific, but interesting. G
      96. F. Barbara Orlans, In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation, Oxford Univ. Press, 1993. History, major issues, review boards, pain, animal use in education, sources of dogs and cats (the pound or especially bred). G
      97. National Research Council, Guide for the Use of Laboratory Animals, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996.
      98. Gary E. Varner, In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights and Environmental Ethics, Oxford Univ Press, NY, 1997. Uses neuroscience research to illuminate the interests and desires of animals and considers both anthropocentric and biocentric views of the world. GH
      99. Wade Roush, "Hunting for Animal Alternatives", Science, 1996, Oct 11, 168 - 171. A summary of the current state of the art and philosophy about alternatives to using animals for testing toxicity, drug effectiveness, etc. GH
      100. David Oliver Relin, "Welcome to the Monkey House", Science World, 1992, Apr 3, 6 - 13. G
      101. Larry Horton, "The Enduring Animal Issue", J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1989, 81, 736 - 743. G
      102. Donald J. Davidoff, "Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study", Ref. Serv. Rev., 1989, 17, 71 - 73. GH
      103. Dale Jamieson, "Teaching Ethics in Science and Engineering: Animals in Research", Sci. Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1(2), 185-6. Short list of important issues. AG
      104. Andrew N. Rowan, "Ethics Education in Science and Engineering: The Case of Animal Research", Sci. Engin. Ethics, 1995, 1(2), 181 - 184. Principles and critical questions. AG
      105. Steven M. Wise, Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animlas , Perseus Books, 2000. The author is a lawyer who has argued many cases (and won) in veterinary malpractice and rights for pets. He argues that animals should have legal rights, but bases his arguments on their similarieits to people. G
      106. "The Rise of the Mouse, Biomedicine's Model Mammal", Science, 2000, 288, 248 - 257. A series of articles by staff writers on different aspects of mice as experimental animals and human models: history, genetics, breeders, patents. G
      107. Lynette A. Hart, ed. Responsible Conduct with Animals in Research, Oxford Univ Press, 1998. A collection of readings on ethical and practical issues. G
      108. F. Barbara Orlans, Tom L. Beauchamp, Rebecca Dresser, David B. Morton, John P. Gluck, The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice, Oxfor Univ Press 1998. These cases will really make you think. G
      109. Gary E. Varner, In Nature's Interest?: Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental Ethics, Oxford Univ Press, 1998. While allowing all living beings interests, he gives some a priority over others and develops an environmental policy that takes all into account. AG
      110. Vaughan Monamy, Animal Experimentation, A Guide to the Issues, Cmabridge U Press, 2000. History and ethics of experimentation, moral status of animals, obligations of researchers, alternatives. Tries to be balanced and objective. G
      111. Peter Singer, Writings on an Ethical Life, Ecco Press of Harper Collins. A collection of Singer's writings proposing moral equality of man and animals. G
      112. Extending protection to rats, mice and birds
        1. Janet Raloff, "Of Rats, Mice and Birds", Science News, 2000, 158, 334-5. The original USDA rules excluded rats, mice and birds from federal rules for humane treatment, although NIH and the accrediting agency (AALAC) for animal care facilties include them. A suit brought by several groups succeeded in extending the act to rats, mice and birds. Although most labs follow voluntary standards anyway, the new rules will require expensive reports. G
        2. David Malakoff, "Researchers Fight Plan to Regulate Mice, Birds", Science, 2000, 289, 23. Concerned about extra costs of meeting these requirements.
        3. David Malakoff, "Activists Win Big on Rodent, Bird Rules", 2000, 289, 377. They are given the legal right to challenge the regulations.
        4. Scott Plous & Harold A. Herzog, "Poll Shows Researcher Favor Lab Animal Protection", Science, 2000, 290, 711. Including protection for rats, mice and pigeons, in contrast to the claim above. G
      113. Constance Holden, "Researchers Pained by Effort to Define Distress Precisely" 2000, 290, 1474-5. USDA requested help defining stress and distress so as to give IACUC's a standard for animal care.
      114. Rosalind Hursthouse, Ethics, Humans and Other Animals: An Introduction with Readings, Routledge, NY, 2000. Utilitarianm rights and virtue approaches with a reading for each chapter. G
      115. Medicine - General

      116. Darwin Cheney, ed, Ethical Issues in Research, University Publishing Group, Frederick, MD, 1993. Heavy emphasis on medical research. BG
      117. T. L. Beauchamp and J. F. Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Oxford U. Press, New York and Oxford, 1989. This is the major text on the subject. AG
      118. Basil Blackwell, Bioethics, 1988. G
      119. Tom L. Beauchamp and LeRoy Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 4th ed., Wadsworth (International Thomson Publishing), Belmont, CA, 1994. An introduction to ethical theory, plus introductions to collections of readings about medical ethics in policy, treatment and research and law. AG
      120. Julie S. Bach, ed., Biomedical Ethics: Opposing Viewpoints, Greenhaven Press, St. Paul, MN, 1987. G
      121. John Lincourt, Ethics Without a Net: A Case Workbook in Bioethics, Kendall / Hunt Publishing, 1995.
      122. American Medical Association, "Ethical guidelines for clinical investigation", Today's Health, 1967, 45, 70. Four guidelines are listed from the Helsinki Declaration of the WMA and the Principles of the AMA. G
      123. Carl Berkley, "Ethical dilemmas in medical engineering", Amer. J. Medical Electronics, 1966, 5(1), 9 - 10. Some cases are discussed and a proposal is made for an ethics commitee. G
      124. Robert M. Veatch, The Patient as Partner: A Theory of Human-Experimentation Ethics, Indiana U Press, Part 1 1987 and Part 2, 1991. The title suggests a model for treatment of the patient as human, rather than subject. IT explores some of the controversies about medical experiments on humans. G
      125. Harold J. Morowitz and James Trefil, The Facts of Life: Science and the Abortion Controversy, Oxford University Press, NY. Written by a scientist and a science writer - accessible and provocative. FG
      126. H. E. Morreim, "Cost Containment: Issues of Moral Conflict and Justice for Physicians", Theor. Med. 1985, 6, 257 - 279. There are lots of articles on this subject, especially as it relates to treatment of the dying. AG
      127. Richard Rhodes, "Man-Made Death: A Neglected Mortality", JAMA, 1988, 260(5), 686 - 687. FG
      128. Timothy E. Quill, Death and Dignity: Making Choices and Taking Charge, W. W. Norton, NY, 1993. The author is a physician who has helped a patient to die and makes some thoughtful comments about it. G
      129. John Horgan, "Seeking a Better Way to Die", Sci. Amer. 1997, May, 100 - 105. Alternatives to euthanasia and dying on machines are explored for current and future options. G
      130. Paul R. Mchugh, "The Kevorkian Epidemic", American Scholar, 1997, Winter, 15 - 27. G
      131. David Orentlicher, "The Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide", New England J. Medicine, 1996, 29 Aug, 663 - 668. G
      132. S. J. Reiser, A. J. Dyck and W. J. Curran, Ethics in Medicine. Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Concerns, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1977. G
      133. Dorothy Nelkin and Laurence Tancredi, Dangerous Diagnostics. The Social Power of Biological Information, Basic Books, NY, 1989 FG
      134. Philip J. Hilts, Smokescreen, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA 1996. A reporter's description of the discrepancy between internal understanding of tobacco companies and public statements. BDF
      135. Stanton Glantz, John Slade, Lisa A. Bero, Peter Hannauer, and Deborah E. Barnes, (another book on smoking) UC Press, Berkeley, CA 1996. The words of the tobacco companies (internal memos, etc) dramatically illustrate the discrepancy between what they knew about tobacco's harmful effects and what they said publicly. BDF
      136. Alastair Campbell, Max Charlesworth, Grant Gillett and Gareth Jones, Medical Ethics, 2nd ed., Oxford U Press, New York, 1997. Theories of medical ethics, cultural differences, genetic dilemmas, research ethics, use of human tissue, confidentiality. Case studies and examples. G
      137. John D. Arras and Bonnie Steinbock, Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine, 5th ed., Mayfield Publishing Co., Mountain View, CA, 1998. An anthology of readings with an introduction to the book discussing ethical theories and introductions and suggested readings for the sections: the health professional - patient relationship, death and euthanasia, conception and abortion, assisted reproduction, experiments on humans, and social justice.
      138. Aaron Ridley. Beginning Bioethics: A Text with Integrated Readings, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1998. Designed to go with Crigger, this book discusses philosophical principles (deontology and utilitarianism),the rights and responsibilities for professional and patient in the health care field. G
      139. Bette-Jane Crigger, Cases in Bioethics, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1998. Individual cases from a report by the Hastings Center are presented and discussed by bioethicists and doctors. The organization and scope matches Ridley's philosophical book. G
      140. David J. Miller and Michael Hersen, eds. Research Fraud in the Behavioral and Biomedical Sciences, Wiley, NY 1992. BG
      141. Susan M. Wolf, ed. Feminism and Bioethics: Beyond Reproduction, Oxford Univ Press, 1996. Different approaches are presented, esp liberal feminism, and applied to euthanasia, AIDS, doctor-patient raltionships, the human genome project, biomedical research, health care reform. CG
      142. Sue V. Rosen, Women's Health - missing from U.S. medicine, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, IN, 1996. FG
      143. Helen B. Holmes and Laura M. Purdy, Feminist Perspectives on Medical Ethics, Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, IN, 1992. G
      144. Arthur Caplan, Due Consideration: Controvery in the Age of Medical Miracles, John Wiley and Sons, NY 1998. A series of short (most 2 pages) essays, many of which began as newspaper editorials on genetics, reproduction, research ethics, economics, managed care, preventable diseases. G
      145. The Social Face of Death, Poynter Center, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. A 50page monograph extracted from interviews with patients and families confronted with death, many of whom remembered what dying was like a generation or two ago. G
      146. Harold Evans, et al, Suffer the Children: The Story of Thalidomide, Viking Press, NY.
      147. Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, "Deliberative Democracy: The Case of Bioethics", Liberal Education, 1998, Winter, 10 -17. Public deliberation promotes legitimacy, encourages generosity, promotes mutual respect and corrects mistakes and thus is necessary for making decisions about bioethics. FG
      148. Lone Frank, "When an Entire Country is a Cohort", Science, 2000, 287, 2398 - 2399. Denmark's excellent national health records provide a remarkable database which has been used recently to debunk two myths: that women who have abortions have a greater risk of breast cancer and that blood transfusion increase cancer risks. Privacy is protected and these remarkable records are in danger from budget cuts. G
      149. Martin Enserink, "Malaria Researchers Wait for Industry to Join Fight", Science, 2000, 287, 1956 - 8. Drug companies must show profits to shareholders and thus cannot invest in diseases that only affect poor countires. How do we solve thsi problem? CG
      150. Albert R. Jonsen A Short History of Medical Ethics, Oxford Univ Press, New York, 1999. Certain themes arise in both western and eastern cultures which give a basis for medical ethics. AG
      151. Bernard Gert, Charles M. Culver, and K. Danner Clouser, Bioethics: A Return to Fundamentals, Oxford Univ Press, 1997. A deep, fully integrated discussion. G
      152. Margaret Pabst Battin, ed. The Least Worst Death: Essays in Bioethics on the End of Life, Oxord Univ Press 1994. Interesting essays on right-to-die, etc. G
      153. Kenneth D. Alpern, ed. The Ethics of Reproductive Technology, Oxford Univ Press, 1992. Includes introductions by the author. G
      154. Sana Loue, Textbook of Research Ethics, Kluwer / plenum, Norwell, MA, 2000. Stories about human experimentation introduce the book, which the considers ethical priniciples and current ethical and legal guidelines for the design and implementation of human subjects research. G
      155. Sally Satel, PC, MD: How Political Correctness is Corrupting Medicine, Basic Books, 2000. It is not longer politically correct to criticize alternative medicines. Patients are now thinking of themselves as "survivors" of modern medicine and demanding homeopathy, etc. Many doctors and psychiatrists have embraced alternatives without serious evaluation and are doing serious harm to patients. See review by Michael Packenham, "Political correctness kills, and here's medical evidence", Baltimore Sun, 2001, Sun., Jan. 7. Trevor Smith, Ethics in Medical Research: A Handbook of Good Practice, Cambridge U Press, 1999. British guidelines are explained with practical advice regarding protocols even when there are no rules. G
      156. AP, "Medical ethics students get free meal from drug maker", Baltimore Sun, 2000, Nov 1, 14A. The meal was provided at a lecture on financial conflicts of interest. It is especially important that medical researchers reduce their conflict of interest such as holding stock in drug companies. G
      157. Laurie Garrett, Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health, Hyperion, NY, 2000. "700 pages of text and notes form 5 years of stalking disease and bureuacratic delay in Indiam Africa, the former Soviet Union and our own United States". "While hardworking professionals in public health silently battle on, she give voice to their stiftled moral outrage over lost lessons and opportunities" (quotes from Sci. Amer. review. See also Science review. FG
      158. Michael C. Brennan and Judith A. Boss, Healthcare Ethics in a Diverse Society, Mayfield Publishing, Mountain View, CA. Both a text and a reader, beginning with moral theory and relationships of health care professionals and patients, and discussing all the hot topics. G
      159. Medicine - Genetic Testing and Therapy

      160. Bernard Gert, Edward M. Berger, George F. Cahill, Jr., K. Danner Clouoser, Charles M. Culver, John B. Moeschler, George H. S. Singer, Morality and the New Genetics, Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, MA 1996. A guide for health care providers which examines the technical and moral issues regarding testing for genetic "maladies" and using the results of those tests, with Huntington's disease as an example. AG
      161. Kathy A. Fackelmann, "Beyond the Genome: The ethics of DNA testing", Science News, 1994, 146, 298 - 299; "DNA Dilemmas: Readers and "experts" weigh in on biomedical ethics", Science News, 1994, 146, 408 - 410. Short but pointed discussion. FG
      162. Henry K. Beecher, "Ethics and Clinical Research", New Engl. J. Med. 1966, 274, 1354 - 1360. FGH
      163. S. Benowitz, "Scientists Struggling with concerns raised by genome project progress" The Scientists, 1996, 10(1), 6 - 7. G
      164. R. Hubbard and R. C. Lewontin, "Pitfalls of genetic testing", New England J. Medicine, 1996, 334, 1192 - 1193. G
      165. Howard F. Stein, "The human genome as metaphor", J. Family Practice, 1992, 35, 256 - 258. G
      166. Kenneth D. Alpern, ed., The Ethics of Reproductive Technology, Oxford U Press, New York, 1992. A collection of articles. G
      167. Carson Strong, Ethics in Reproductive and Perinatal Medicine, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1997. The right to control reproduction by various means, the rights of the fetus and the obligations of parents. G
      168. J. David Smith, The Eugenic Assault on America: Scenes in Red, White and Black, George Mason U Press, Lanham MD 1993. Is trying to repair the human genome just eugenics in another guise? CG
      169. Glenn McGee, ed.The Human Cloning Debate, Berkeley Hills Books, Berkeley, CA, 1998. A collection of readings on cloning policy and philosophy - a reproductive right or playing God? Several different religions are represented in the discussion, as are the political issues but not the legal ones. FG
      170. Diane B. Paul, The Politics of Heredity. Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine and the Nature-Nurture Debate, SUNY Press, Ithaca, NY. Eugenics (selective human breeding) was a popular liberal idea until Hitler showed what could be done with it. Genetic engineering makes it possible to alter the human genome more easily -- how will we make those choices? FG
      171. Paul Thompson, ed., Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, SUNY Press, Ithaca, NY. Historical section includes important thinkers from DArwin to E. O. Wilson and R. Dawkins. The contemporary section discusses ethics within the frameword of evolutionary theory. FG
      172. Eliot Marshall "FDA Halts All Gene Therapy Trials at Penn", Science, 2000, 287, 565-6. Doctors running gene therapy trials for a genetic disease failed to reveal that several primates had died from this therapy, and it was not too long before a teenager (Jesse Gelsinger) died as well. The doctors violated a lot of rules and this case will no doubt be thoroughly studied -- it has already been thoroughly examined in newspapers with the information available shortly after his death. BFG
      173. Glenn McGee, The Perfect Baby: Parenthood in the New World of Cloning and Genetics, 2nd ed., Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 2000. What characteristics should we be allowed to select? FG
      174. Anne Donchin and Laura M. Purdy, eds, Embodying Bioethics: Recent Feminist Advances, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 1999. Essays on care and justice, practice, reproduction and transforming bioethics from a feminist perspective. G
      175. Gregory E. Pence, ed., Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 1998. Readings from well-known scientists such as Leon Kass and Stephen J. Gould. G
      176. John Harris, Clones, Genes and Immortality, Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, 1998. What will we do with longer life-spans? How would we cope with immortals in our midst? G
      177. "Stem Cells Branch Out", Science, 2000, 287, 1397, 1417 - 1445. The latest technical information and ethical considerations in stem cell R&D in a series of articles. FG
      178. Marcia Barinaga "Asilomar Revisited: Lessons for Today", Science, 2000, 287, 1584-5. In Feb 1975, 140 scientists met to develop self- controls for genetic engineering / recombinant DNA; the anniversary has people talking about doing this again, since the number of controversial and potentially dangerous techniques has multiplied. FG
      179. Joannie Schrof Fischer, "Best hope or broken promise", U.S. News & World Report, 2000, Feb 14, 46. Jesse Gelsinger died from gene therapy that had already been shown to cause massive liver damage in primate test animals. The administration of the therapy was in violation of the research protocol and in December of 2000 the head of the project was denied any further funding by NIH (Gretchen Vogel, "FDA Moves Against Penn Scientist"Science 2000, 290, 2049-51. "Bioethics on the Front Burner" Science 2000, 290, 2225. The investigators had a conflict of interest. CEFG
      180. Medicine - Human Subjects - Discrimination?

      181. Allen Cato, Clinical Drug Trials and Tribulations, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1988.
      182. James H. Jones, Bad Blood: the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, Free Press (Maxwell Macmillan Intl), NY 1993. An account of the study in which poor black men were used to study the progress of the disease long after a cure was available, and some other stories about racism in medicine. CDFG
      183. Charles Mann, "Women's Health Research Blossoms", Science, 1995, 269, 766 -770. Has research on disease in women been neglected or not? Check the subsequent issues for letters. After the essay follow specific reports (through p.801) on women's health issues: maternal health, hormone replacement, infertility, heart disease, depression. CEFG
      184. Helen B. Holmes, ed. Feminist Perspectives in Medical Ethics, Indiana U Press, Bloomington, 1992. BFG
      185. Christine Pierce and Donald VanDeVeer, Aids, Ethics and Public Policy, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1988. A series of essays, including many on the rights of citizens in a democracy. BFG
      186. Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On, . The "band" was and is politicians and scientists struggling for power while people die of AIDS. BCDEFG
      187. Jon Cohen, "AIDS Trials Ethics Questioned", Science, 1997, 276, 520 - 523. Given the lethal nature of the disease, is it ethical to have any placebo groups - some studies have been aborted to provide all participants access to a drug that show promise. FG
      188. Chandler Burr, A Separate Creation, NY, 1996. A discussion of the evidence for (and against?) a genetic basis for homosexuality. G
      189. Marcia Angell, Science on Trial: The Clash of Medical Evidence and the Law on the Breast Implant Case, Norton, NY, 1996. As medicine pays more heed to science, the courts pay less. Is there any scientific or epidemiological evidence for harm? F
      190. Evelyn Strauss, "The Tissue Issue: Losing Oneself to Science?", Science News, 1997, 152, 190 - 191. Can medical research use tissues taken from patients without their consent and, if they consent, can it protect their privacy? G
      191. Lawrence K. Altman, Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine, University of California Press, 1997? The story is fascinating and the author take a stand on this controversial issue. G
      192. David J. Rothman, "Body Shop", The Sciences, 1997, Nov/Dec, 17 - 21. In China, organs from executed prisoners are used for transplants - can there be consent under such circumstances? FG
      193. George J. Annas, ed. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Human Rights in Human Experimentation, Oxford Univ Press, 1992. A paperback collection of readings. G
      194. "In darkness of apartheid, it was science gone mad", Baltimore Sun, Friday June 12, 1998, A1, A12. The truth and reconciliation committe hears about an infertility programn a secret biological and chemical weapons program - which was used - and plans to induce brain damage in Nelson Mandela, all under the guise of a research laboratory. FG
      195. Baruch A. Brody, Ethical Issues in Drug Testing, Approval, and Pricing, Oxford Univ Press, 1995. Evaluation of ethical issues involved in clinical trials. G
      196. The Human Radiation Experiments. Final Report of the President's Advisory Committee, Oxford Univ Press, 1996. People were exposed to radiation without their knowledge. Laws and ethics of the time are considered and recommendations are made for restrictions on activities, accountability, etc. G
      197. Joan E. Sieber, Planning Ethically Responsible Research, A Guide for Students and Internal Review Boards, Applied Social Research Methods Series Vol. 31, Sage Publications, 1992.
      198. "Report Looks at Human Subjects Research on the Internet", Science, 2000, 287, 673. Is communication between people on the Internet private or public? If it is public, researchers are free to use observations just as they can people in a park, but if it is not, then on-line communication is off limits for scientific research -- although this does not seem to prevent marketing research. See G
      199. Martin Enserink. "Are Placebo-Controlled Drug Trials Ethical?", Science, 2000, 288, 416. Is it ever ethical to deny treatment of any kind as part of a study on the effect of a new drug. FDA requires it, but wouldn't it be better to compare with existing medication instead, rather than deny anyone treatment? FG
      200. Ralph Snyderman and Edward W. Holmes, "Oversight Mechanisms for Clinical Research", Science, 2000, 287, 595 - 7. A proposal for improving the clarity and reducing the complexity of guidelines while improving patient protection, arising from lessons learned when Duke University's clinical research was shut down. See also Constance Holden, "Chancellor Quits after Research Shutdown", Science, 1999, 286, 204 for the story of research carried out without IRB approval, without protecting confidentiality, etc. FG
      201. Ann G. Sjoerdsma, "Medical miracle frustrated", Baltimore Sun, 2000, Dec 10, C1, C4. Why is a drug for sleeping sickness not available to patients in Africa? Not just drug company greed, but civil war and the breakdown in public services. FG
      202. Eliot Marshall, "Planned Ritalin Trial for Tots Heads into Uncharted Waters", Science, 2000, 290, 1290-2. Ritalin is used extensively on children but has never bee tested on children - how do you set up such a study and not violate medical ethics? FG
      203. Eliot Marshall, "Families Sue Hospital, Scientist for Control of Canavan Gene", Science, 2000, 290, 1062. Families helped a researcher identify the gene that killed their children and now object when he patents it. G
      204. Pallava Bagla, "New Guidelines Promise Stronger Bioethics", Science, 2000, 290, 919. The Indian government has issued new guidelines to raise standards and tighten oversight for human research subjects, putting them on a par with Western standards. G
      205. Computer Science

      206. Deborah G. Johnson, Computer Ethics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1985; 2nd ed. 1993. BF
      207. T. Forester & P. Morrison, Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990. Theft, hackers, unreliability, privacy, etc. BF
      208. Deborah G. Johnson and Helen Nissenbaum, Computers, Ethics and Social Values, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1995. A very large collection of important readings about ethical issues for computer users, professionals and the public, including copyright, privacy, risks. F
      209. Bev Littlewood and Lorenzo Strigini, "The Risks of Software", Sci. Amer., 1992, 267(5), 62 - 75. Reliability vs diminishing returns. BF
      210. David L. Parnas, A. John van Schouwen, Shu Po Kwan, "Evaluation of Safety-Critical Software", Commun. ACM, 1990, 33, 636 - 648. These authors pointed out the folly of expecting perfect code in such projects as "Star Wars"; many examples given here. BF
      211. Daniel Grant, "Computer copies dilute artists' rights", Baltimore Sun, 1996 Aug 25, J1-2. Electronic infringement on an artist's right to control use of his images is reaching epidemic proportions, especially on the Internet. The law is behind the technology - again, and may need to be changed Buck Bloombecker, Spectacular Computer Crimes, Dow-Jones-Irwin, NY, 1990. BFG
      212. M. David Ermann, Mary B. Williams and Claudio Gutierrez, Computers, Ethics and Society, Oxford U. Press, NY, 1990. FG
      213. Tom Forester and P. Morrison, Computer Ethics: Cautionary Tales and Ethical Dilemmas in Computing, MIT Press, Boston, MA 1990. FG
      214. David Burnham, The Rise of the Computer State, Vintage Books div. of Random House, NY 1984. FG
      215. L. Frederick Cooper III, Law and the Software Marketer, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988. FG
      216. Douglas W. Johnson, Computer Ethics: A Guide for the New Age, The Brethren Press, Elgin, IL, 1984. FG
      217. Ernest A. Kallman and John P. Grillo, Ethical Decision Making and Information Technology, Mitchell-McGraw-Hill, Watsonville, CA 1993. AFG
      218. Bruce Sterling, The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder in the Electronic Frontier, Bantam Press, NY, 1992. BFG
      219. Donn B. Parker, Susan Swope, Bruce N. Baker, Ethical Conflicts in Information and Computer Science, Technology, and Business, QED Information Sciences Inc, Wellesley, MA 1990. BFG
      220. Richard S. Rosenberg, The Social Impact of Computers, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1992. FG
      221. Richard Severson, The Principles of Information Ethics, M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY, 1997. An introduction to ethical theory, followed by discussions of principles, such as respect for intellectual property, fair representation, privacy, nonmaleficence with examples such as computer crime, copyrights. AFG
      222. Jeffrey Rothfelder, "Is Nothing Private?" Business Week, September 4, 1989. Some scary stories and data about how easy it is for others to learn intimate details about your finances and other things. Sidebars in the article on law (and the lack of it) and interesting examples. FG
      223. Deborah G. Johnson and John M. Mulvey, "Accountability and Computer Decision Systems", Commun. ACM, 1995, 38(12), 58 - 64. Computers are now used to make decisions, like when to sell stock and whether an object on the screen is an enemy plane. An examination of the programmers' responsibility for the functioning of a program, esp in a team project and a plea for professionalism, not guns for hire. FG
      224. Doris K. Lidtke, "Ethical Behavior in the Curriculum" , Computer: Innovative Technology for Computer Professionals, 1997, Nov, 51 - 52. Computer science accrediting agencies and societies require ethics instruction in the curriculum. Integration into the curriculum has not worked well since many faculty just skip the topic or fail to test for understanding. A separate course works better. AG
      225. Sara Baase, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal and Ethical Issues in Computing, Prentice-Hall, 1997. Includes the impact of computer technology on privacy, censorchip on the Internet, protection of intellectual property, hacking and computer crime, risks from failure of computer systems, and ethical dilemmas of computer professionals. FG
      226. Laura J. Gurak, Persuasion and Privacy in Cyberspace, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1997. An analysis of two proposed software and hardware products that would allow the government to monitor individual users at will. FG
      227. Mark Minasi, The Software Consipracy, McGraw-Hill, New York. Why software companies put out faulty products, how they can hurt you, and what you can do about it. BFG
      228. Clifford Stoll, High Tech Heretic. Why Computers Don't Belong in the Classroom and Other Reflections by a Computer Contrarian, Doubleday, New York. A veteran good hacker, one who caught E. German spies who broke into military computers, by pursuing an error of a few cents. Similar theme in Silicon Snake Oil.AFG
      229. "Report Looks at Human Subjects Research on the Internet", Science, 2000, 287, 673. Is communication between people on the Internet private or public? If it is public, researchers are free to use observations just as they can people in a park, but if it is not, then on-line communication is off limits for scientific research -- although this does not seem to prevent marketing research. See G
      230. Glenn McGee, "The Web and Conflict of Interest", Science, 1999, 284, 1274-5. Ethics sites have statements of support and thus conflict of interest. CEG
      231. Sanying Siang, "Researching Ethically with Human Subjects in Cyberspace", Prof. Ethics Report of AAAS, 1999 (Fall), 1, 7, 8. Even though much of what we do on line is not private but public, does that give researchers the right to access to what we say? FG
      232. Peter G. Neumann, Computer-Related Risks, Addison-Wesley, 1995. This scientist has been recording accidents and near-misses caused by faulty hardware and software for many years. Here he turns his data into a book with analyses. FG
      233. Kenneth W. Goodman, Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care, Cambridge U Press, 1997, attempts to identify and discuss all the ethical issues that arise when intelligent machines are used in medicine. G
      234. M. David Ermann, Mary B. Williams and Michele S. Schauf, Computers, Ethics and Society, 2nd ed., Oxford U Press 1997. The legal and ethical parameters of computer use and the social and ethical responsibility of information managers and scientists. G
      235. Engineering and Related Fields

      236. A. Pablo Iannone, Contemporary Moral Controversies in Technology, Oxford U. Press, NY, 1987. FG
      237. Deborah Johnson, Ethical Issues in Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1991. FG
      238. Mike W. Martin and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996.
      239. Henry Petroski, Invention by Design, Harvard U Press, 1996?. An insider's look at the political and cultural dimensions of design, development andproduction. Who is responsible for engineering outcomes? G
      240. Charles E. Harris, Michael Pritchard, Michael Rabins, Engineering Ethcis: Concepts and Cases, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA 1995. This book is designed as a text for engineering ethics courses. It is careful to define terms and use them consistently; it presents 70 cases and a methodology for making decisions about them, with an emphasis on moral responsibility. Includes environmental problems. AGH
      241. Dietrich Bonner, The Logic of Failure, Addison-Wesley, NY, 1996. The author examines the patterns of thought the lead humas into designing failures by failing to anticipate consequences. Our linear thinking can cause major disasters like the Aswan dam ecological consequences. FG
      242. Charles E. Harris, Michael S. Pritchard, and Michael J. Rabins, Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Wadsworth Publishing Co., Belmont CA, 1995.
      243. Caroline Whitbeck, Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research, Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK (and New York) 1998. The problems that practicing scientists and engineers solve every day seldom have a "right answer"; rather the solution comes from an evaluation of the benefits and risks (some of which might be totally unacceptable), or profits and costs of a variety of alternatives. The ability to devise creative solutions is important to success. Ethical problems are like this - it takes sensitivity to see them and creativity to solve them. The book also has a nice discussion of basic ethics free of reference to the philosophers of history. AG
      244. Michael Davis, Thinking Like an Engineer: Studies in the Ethics of a Profession, Oxford U press, New York, 1998. History, the Challenger disaster and engineering ideals and practice. How should engineers think? How should engineers interact with managers? FG
      245. Henry Petroski, "Vanity of the Bonfire", Amer. Sci., 2000, 88, 486 - 490. Analysis of the collapse of the Texas A&M student bonfire which killed several students illustrates how poor designs and poor oversight tend to get worse until they are catastrophic, a phenomenon that occurs in accidents in science as well (I got away with it this time...). DFG

    9. Scientists and the Future of the Earth
      1. Environmental Ethical Foundations and Philosophy

      2. Louis P. Pojman, Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, Jones and Bartlett, Boston 1994. A collection of readings - with a difference. The author/editor introduces each section and each article. H
      3. Christopher D. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing?. Wm Kaufmann, 1995, Avon Books, NY, 1975. Legal rights for animals and plants? FGH
      4. Richard E. Hart, ed., Ethics and the Environment, University Press of America, Lanham, MD, 1992. A collection of the writings, various backgrounds. FH
      5. Peter Marshall, Nature's Web: Rethinking Our Place on Earth, M. E. Sharpe, (Paragon House), Armonk, NY, 1993. A philosophical analysis of the religious, philosophical and intellectual roots of an environmental ethic, with descriptions of modern approaches from deeply conservative to radically feminist. AI
      6. Joseph R. des Jardins, Environmental Ethics: An introduction to Environmental Philosophy, 2nd ed., Wadsworth, Belmont, CA 1997. A philosophical discussion and justification of basic and applied environmental ethics, working from anthropogenic through nonanthropogenic to holistic models. HI
      7. Holmes Rolston, Philosophy Gone Wild: Essay in Environmental Ethics, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY.
      8. Robert Elliot, ed. Environmental Ethics, Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995. A collection which focusses on duties to the future, the relevance of ecology to ethics, ecofeminism and politics. H
      9. Christine Pierce and Donald VanDeVeer, eds, People, Penguins and Plastic Trees, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA 1995 A collection of readings, including Tom Regan, Peter Singer, Cristopher Stone, Aldo Leopold, Garrett Hardin. GH
      10. Tom Regan, Earthbound: Introductory Essays on Environmental Ethics, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights, IL 1984. One of the founders of the modern conceptions of the origins and extent of animal rights. GH
      11. Lori Gruen and Dale Jameson, Reflecting on Nature. Readings in Environmental Philosophy, Oxford Univ Press. 1994. Focusses on environmental justice and sustainable development and includes feminist, minority and third world views. H
      12. Connie Barlow, Green Space, Green Time. The Way of Science, Copernicus Books, 1997. The book describes and promotes the greening of religion, following the lead of Carl Sagan, Edward Wilson and others asking the religious community to help abolish crimes against creation. FH
      13. Joseph R. DesJardins, Environmental Ethics. An Introduction to Environmental Philosophy, 2nd ed, Wadsworthm Belmont, CA 1997. A text with concepts introduced by cases. Topics include economics and ethics, responsibility to future generations and the natural world, biocentric ethics, deep ecp;pgy, ecofeminism. GH
      14. Donald Van DeVeer and Christine Pierce, The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book, 2nd ed., Wadsworth, Belmont CA 1998. A collection of readings with some ethical theory, religious and cultural perspectives, articles about animal rights, and approaches to environmental ethics. 94 essays. GH
      15. K. Schrader-Frechette, Environmental Ethics
      16. Daniel Kealey, Revisioning Environmental Ethics, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1990. A philosophical argument for a different approach to the environment. Read more about it.
      17. Clare Palmer, Environmental Ethics and Process Thinking, Oxfor Univ Press, New York, 1998. Process thinking and ethics is compared to other philosophical approaches to environmental ethics such as deep ecology. AH
      18. J. Baird Callicott, Beyond the Land Ethic: More Essays in Environmental Philosophy, Suny Press, Albany, NY, 1999. A sequel to his pioneering In Defense of the Land Ethic, the book discusses a variety of environmental philosophical issues in a provocative way. AG
      19. James P. Sterba, Three Challenges to Ethics: Environmentalism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism, Oxford U Press, 2000. The first part attempts to synthesize antropogenic and biogenic concerns, and show how conflicts between nonhumans and humans might be resolved. AH
      20. Human Population

      21. Donella Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers and William W. Behrens, The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, NY 1972. This book identifies potential limits to resources and thus to human population. A pioneering study sponsored by the Club of Rome, and a must-read. FGH
      22. Mihajlo Mesarovic and Eduard Pestel, Mankind at the Turning Point, Signet, NY 1974. A follow-up to Meadows et al. FGH
      23. Garrett Hardin, "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 1968, 162, 1243 - 1248. Our unrestrained use of resources belonging to the government (or all) may condemn us to disastrous overuse. FGH
      24. Garrett Hardin, "Living on a Lifeboat", Bioscience, 1994, 24 - . Think of the developed countries as lifeboats that have a small margin of safety and overpopulated, underdeveloped, underfed countries as the people in the water and you have the gist of the argument Hardin makes - that we can't save everyone and if we try we will all drown. Just because previous immigration policy was based on prejudice does not mean that we should not have any controls at all. GH
      25. Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski and John Peterson, Our Stolen Future. Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence and Survival? Dutton, NY 1996. It has recently been determined that a variety of man-made compounds act as hormone mimics and disrupt the endocrine system. This book is written for the public - does it present the evidence fairly and clearly? Reviewers disagree. FGH
      26. Joel E. Cohen, How Many People Can the Earth Support?, W. W. Norton & Co., NY 1996. A probing technical and philosophical analysis of the science and statistics to date. An overview of previous estimates but which fails to ask the hard questions like "at what level of support?" and "what are the assumptions?" FGH
      27. Janet Raloff, "The Human Numbers Crunch", Science News 1996, 149 (June 22), 396 - 397. An overview on recent research and thinking on the earth's "carrying capacity". GH
      28. William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Is, BC, 1997. It takes 12.5 acres to support one American but only 7 acres are available per person in the Usa and 3.7 world-wide. What can we do? H
      29. Bill McKibben, Maybe One: A Personal and Environmental Argument for Single- Child Families, Simon and Shuster, NY 1997. This environmentalist (author of The End of Nature) calculates that if we reduce our birthrate to 1.5 and halve immigration, our population will stabilize at 230 million in the USA. He acts on his conclusions and urges others to do so as well.
      30. "Inadequate -- Congress Underfunds World Population Control Efforts", Chesapeake (Sierra Club magazine), Jan/Feb 200, 16. Republican congress cut support from $542 to $72 million in 1994, denying family planning services in poor countries, etc. FGH
      31. Specific Issues - Environmental Problems

      32. Gordon K. Durnil, The Making of a Conservative Environmentalist, Indiana U. Press, Bloomington, 1995. Written by a former Indiana Republican Party Chair and rep. to the International Joint Commission (USA-Canada). A highly controversial book, which gives an unusual portrait of all the stakeholders in the development of environmental law. FGH
      33. Susan Pollack, "The Last Fish", Sierra, 1995 (July/August), 48 - 53, 74. A summary of the decimation of the Canadian cod industry and the livelihood of an entire province. Loggers take heed. FGH
      34. "Has environmental regulation gone too far? A debate on the costs versus the benefits", Chem. Eng. News, 1979 (April 23), 24 - 53. Old but interesting. BF
      35. Janet Raloff, "Computer Redux", Science News, 1995, 148, 424 - 425. Creative, forward looking recycling finds uses for old dead computer boards. H
      36. Peter M. Vitousek, Carla M. D'Antonio, Lloyd L. Loope and Randy Westbrooks, "Biological Invasions as Global Environmental Change", Amer. Sci. 1996, 84. 468 - 478. Continental isolation has enhanced the diversity of species on earth; transfer of species between continents has been accelerated by man and could result in a reduction of the number of species to less than half - without habitat destruction. GH
      37. Bruce Piasecki and Peter Asmus, In Search of Environmental Excellence: Moving Beyond Blame, Touchstone (Simon and Schuster), Ny 1990. Discussions of where we have gone wrong are followed by practical examples of better ways of using our resources. For example, Sweden's homes leak energy and air at half the rate of the USA's homes, using simple technology; a national commitment included improved financing for new homes with enrgy-efficient features. We need to go beyond regulation and integrate our approach to environmental protection; as many companies have discovered, it is profitable to operate with less waste. FH
      38. Lisa H. Newton and Catherine K. Dillingham, Watershed: Ten Cases in Environmental Ethics, Wadworth, Belmont, CA 1997. The 10 cases described briefly include east coast fisheries collapse (a few years ago), cutting forests, pesticides, the population problem. The descriptions are followed by notes, questions for discussion and references. HI
      39. Donald Scherer, ed., Upstream / Downstream: Issues in Environmental Ethics, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1990. GH
      40. John Hart, Storm over Mono: The Mono Lake Battle and the California Water Future, Univ. of Calfornia Press, 1996. This examination of how Los Angeles acquied the right to drain the headwaters of a lake hundreds of miles away is a paradigm for how human beings relate to the environment. For a less academic view of the issue, see the old movie Chinatown with Jack Nicholson. H
      41. David W. Orr, Earth in Mind: Education, Environment and the Human Prospect, Island Press, Washington, DC, 1994. The book addresses the question "what is education for?" and discusses the important role envrionmental education has for our future. H
      42. David Oates, Earth Rising: Ecological Belief in an Age of Science, Oregon State Univ Press, Corvallis, OR 1989. The author presents the case that holism, balance and cooperation is necessary for the survival of all species on earth, and if we cannot embrace that fact that we are part of a superorganism, we may be destined to become extinct (and take others with us). GH
      43. Paul R. Ehrlich and Anne H. Ehrlich, Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti-Environmental Rhetoric Threatens Our Future, Island Press, Washington, DC 1996. A thorough discussion and documentation to refute claims that the atmosphere is fine and species loss is no big deal, etc. Covers energy and food and water resourcesm biological diversity and its importance, toxic substances, economics, politics and the media. An attempt to correct the backlash (brownlash). H
      44. Theodore D. Goldfarb, ed., Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues, 7th ed., Dushkin / McGraw-Hill, Guilford, CT, 1997. Opposing viewpoints on the value of the environment, environmental policy, population growth, dangers of selected pollutants, agricultural aids, waste disposal, etc. FGH
      45. "Human Dominated Ecosystems", Science, 1997, 277, 485 - 525. A special series of articles about various areas of human impact on ecosystems: especially aquatic, forest, agricultural. Does not discuss ethis per se but describes clearly the human impact and the activities of sciencists in identifying and correcting it. H
      46. Paul R. Ehrlich and Anne H. Ehrlich, Betrayal of Science and Reason: How Anti- Environmental Rhetoric Threatens our Future, Island Press, Washington, DC 1996. A thorough book which covers population and food supplies, biological diversity, air pollution, global climate change, toxic substances, environmental economics, politics and the media, all with scientific rigor and a strong point of view about the "brownlash" against "green" policy. One reviewer, however, says they expect consistency and impartiality of others but do not provide it in this book. GH
      47. Frances Moore Lappe', Diet for a Small Planet, Ballentine Books, New York, 1971. A strong statement in favor of vegetarianism as a way to reduce the impact of human beings on the earth. H
      48. Eric Katz, Nature as Subject: Human Obligations and Natural Community, Rowman and Littlefield, 1996. Katz develops a philosophy not based on humans and applies it to contemporary environenmental problems. H
      49. Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action, Random House, NY, 1995. A thorough report on groundwater pollution from mills in Massachusetts, their long-term effects and the science and politics of fixing the problem. FGH
      50. Lisa H. Newton and Catherine K. Dillingham, Watersheds 2, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA 1997. Population explosion, war, factory poisons, rainforest diversity, oil spills, climate change, ozone layer, fisheries. GH
      51. Lois Ember, Environmental Justice at Issue, Chem Eng. News, 1998, July 13, 39 - 42. An attempt to site a PVC plant with starting material synthesis near New Orleans has been challenged because, although it will produce jobs in an "enterprise zone", it will further pollute a region inhabited by poor African-Americans. EPA is considering this challenge. FH
      52. Robert Costanza, et al, "Principles for Sustainable Governance of the Oceans", Science, 1998, 281, 198-9. The principles: responsibility, scale-matching, precaution, adaptive management, full cost allocation, participation. H
      53. Norman Myers and Jennifer Kent, Perverse Subsidies: Tax Dollars Undercutting Our Economies and Environments Alike, International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1998. Subsidies for agriculture encourage overuse, erosion and pollution; subsidies of fossil fuels aggravate acid rain, smog, global warming, etc. FGH
      54. Roger Bate, Ed. What Rusk?, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997. A series of readings about methodology, science, policy and perception in evaluating risks from pollution and exposure to toxins. FG.
      55. Kim Murphy, LA Times, "New face of environmentalism", in Baltimore Sun, Ma7 25, 2000, 2A. An organization called Earth Liberation Front (ELF) has been burning resorts, lumber companies and even individual houses to protest / prevent environmental degradation. Alas, some of their illegal actions have helped sway public opinion in the opposite direction. Even Earth First people think they are "nitwits" and may be working for industry. FH
      56. Peter Singer, Ethics into Action: Henry Spira and the Animal Rights Movement, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 2000. Spira put Singer's ideas into action and found ways to influence companies like Revlon and McDonald's to change their practices. GH
      57. Jocelyn Kaiser, "Bringing Science to the National Parks", Science, 2000, 288, 34 - 37. Scientific studies are needed to support protection of national parks, but have been neglected in tight budgets and restircted by park managers -- how else do you prove that snowmobiles will be harmful? GH
      58. Bette Hileman, "Industry Acts on Climate Change", Chem. Eng. News, 2000, Apr. 24, 31 - 34. Many major companies have resigned from the trade group that opposes the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and have begun to act to reduce carbon dioxide emissions: Amoco, BP, Shell, Texaco, GM, Ford, Daimler-Chrysler (but not Exxon and Chevron) indicate they believe we are changing climate. FH
      59. Janet Raloff, "More Waters Test Positive for Drugs", Science News, 2000, 157, 212. Outdated prescriptions down the drain? Yet another serious source of pollution, producing tranquilized and over-hormoned fish, etc. GH
      60. Scott Lehmann, Privatizing Public Lands, Oxford University Press, 1995. Productivity will be enhanced, of course. Ethics are discussed. See how economists think. AGH
      61. Pamela S. Zurer, "Drugs Down the Drain", Chem. Eng. News, 2000 Apr 10, 51-3. Who would have thought that the excellent advice to toss expired drugs would result in an environmental problem. As Barry Commoner says, "everything has to go somewhere" GH
      62. Cheryl Hogue, "Chemical Producers' TRI Ranking Falls", Chem. Eng. News, 2000 May 29, 46-7. The Toxics Release Inventory keeps adding manufacturing industries each year. This year mining was added and now accounts for HALF of the toxics released into the environment (chemicals are 10%). You have to wonder what other sources we are missing . GH
      63. Peter S. Wenz, Environmental Ethics Today, Oxford U Press, 2001. Major issues of today and philosophical thinking on them, including the ideas of all the major environmental philosophers' ideas. AH
      64. Andrew C. Isenberg The Destruction of the Bison: AN Environmental History, 1750 - 1920, Cambridge U Press, 2000. A reminder not to be self-righteous about the destruction others wreak. GH
      65. Dennis Normile, "Japan's Whaling Program Carries Heavy Baggage", Science, 2000, 289, 2264-5. As soon as the whaling moratorium was signed in 1987, Japan's take of cetaceans for "research" skyrocketed, and the residue of course can be used for food - how do you suppose they are supporting their labs? H
      66. Theodore D. Goldfarb, Taking Sides: Clashing views on controversial environmental isses, McGraw-Hill, 2001. Philosophical and political issues, technology, wastes, the future. 18 issues are featured, presented as debates. H
      67. Terry Collins, "Toward Sustainable Chemistry", Chem. Eng. News, 2001, Jan 5, 48-9. A call to action for chemists to find ways to minimize the matter consumed and the waste deposited in the ecosystem. Green chemistry. FG
      68. L. L. Wolfenberger and P. R. Phifer, "THe Ecological Risks and Benefits of Genetically Engineered Plants", Science, 2000 290, 2088 - 2093. A thoughtful article with lots of references examines the risks of invasiveness, nontarget effects, indirect effectsand new viral diseases and the benefits of reduced pesticide impact and increased yield. FG
      69. Marego Athans, "ELF 'eco-terrorists' target those they see as Earth's foes", Baltimore Sun, Jan 28, 2001, 8A. Setting fire to houses, labs, and a Forest Service HQ building, and freeing laboratory animals or pet horses are part of the strategy of an underground organization that makes Greenpeace look moderate. FH

    10. Codes of Ethics
      1. R. Gorlin, Codes of Professional Responsibility, BNA Books, Washington, DC 1994. 51 official codes of 45 associations in business, health, law, etc., with discussion and lists of resources in the USA and worldwide. FI
      2. A. Cournand, "The Code of the Scientist and its Relation to Ethics", Science, 1977, 198, 699 - 705.
      3. A. Cournand and M. Meyer, "The Scientist's Code", Minerva, 1976 (Spring), 79 - 96.
      4. L. Golberg, "A Code of Ethics for Scientists Reporting and Reviewing Information on Chemicals", Fund. Appl. Toxic., 1982, 2(11-12), 289 - 292. BH
      5. Ward Pigman and Emmett B. Carmichael, "An Ethical Code for Scientists", Science, 1950 (June 16), 643 - 647.
      6. AAAS: Rosemary Chalk, Mark S. Frankel, and Sallie B. Chafer, AAAS Professional Ethics Project, AAAS, Washington, DC 1980. Summary of activities by professional societies. BCDEFH
      7. ACS:
        • The Chemists Creed, 1965; The Chemists Code of Conduct, 1994 found at"
        • Professional Employment Guidelines, American Chemical Society, brochure, 1993
        • Handbook for Teaching Assistants, American Chemical Society, brochure, 1983
        • Janet S. Dodd, Ed., The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC 1986
        • "Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research", Acc. Chem. Res., 1994, 27, 179 - 181 (reprinted every year in ACS journals and available on line). CDFH
        • Academic Professional Guidelines, ACS.
        • Are you up to date on copyright issues?
      8. AIC, the American Institute of Chemists: "Code of Ethics of the American Institute of Chemists", The Chemist, September 1986, 6 - 13, 18, 20 - 22. This code includes discussions of ethics, not just a list of general rules.
      9. AIChE, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers has a brief code at
      10. The National Institute for Engineering Ethics has lilnks to the ethics codes of other engineering societies and other sites.
      11. APS, American Physical Society: Guidelines for Professional Conduct, in Physics Today, 1991 and at also has links to other codes.
      12. ACM, Association for Computing Machinery: "ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct", Communications of the ACM, 1992, 35(5), 94 - 99 and at their web site at
      13. The Online Center for Ethics in Engineering and Science at Case Western Reserve Univ. has a big collection of information and links, including stories of moral leaders, ethics codes and engineering case studies.
      14. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) has a short Code of Ethics and additional commentary on Guidelines for Engineers Dissenting on Ethical Grounds
      15. The American Society of Civil Engineers Code of Ethics also contains canons of practice.
      16. Royal Society: Code of Conduct and Guidance on Professional Conduct, Royal Society of Chemistry, brochure, August v2001. More oriented toward consulting than most. Available on their web site.
      17. American Mathematical Society Ethical Guidelines
      18. Bioethics Resources on the Web is a site with links to a lot of others at Includes links to ethical codes and federal laws.
      19. An informative site Cloning, Right or Wrong (no codes yet).
      20. American Psychological Association has several codes of ethics on line as does the Canadian Psychological Association.
      21. American Sociological Association has a long code of ethics on line.
      22. The International Society for Ethnobiology is working on theirs - guidelines and a code for studies in Mayan areas.
      23. Building an Ethic, an essay on environmental ethics by E. O. Wilson on the Defenders of Wildlife site.
      24. A Canadian Site on hunting ethics and more hunting ethics.
      25. Biology societies - help me here - I need references!!!!
      26. US GOVT: Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees, Exec. Order 12674, 12731, Apr. 12, 1989
      27. National Education Association, "Opinions of the Committee on Professional Ethics", 1964.
      28. Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA, "Use of Animals in Medical Education", JAMA, 1991, 266(6), 836 - 837. Recommendations for policy and procedures for decision-making, including a sample for UT Galveston which states: we need to use animals and if you as a student are not willing to do so, you should not come to this medical school. G
      29. Integrity and Misconduct in Research: Report of the Commision on Research Integrity, Public Health Service, Washington, DC 1995. An attempt to redefine proper scientific conduct, beginning with "scientists are truthful and fair". ABCDEI
      30. Protecting Human Subjects: Institutional Review Board Guidebook, Office of Protection from Research Risks, Washington DC 1993 (GPO). Genetic research, risk/benefit analysis, informed consent, privacy. GI

    11. Critiques of the Scientific Method (new category)

      1. Noretta Koertge, ed. A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science, Oxford Univ Press, 1998. Critiques of the idea that all knowlwedge is subjective and there is no reality there that our subjective selves can connect with. BJ
      2. Nancy Forbes, "Is There a Feminist Way of Doing Science?", AWIS Magazine, 1996, Fall, 26 - 28. An examination of feminist views, esp those of Evelyn Fox Keller, that women think differently and therefore make different discoveries and interpretations than men do. BJ


    The letters coding these sections - A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I - are used in the course outline and schedule and the reference lists, providing visual connections between them in addition to the links. The letters also provide a means to denote the range of topics in books and articles in the reference list.

    1. Novels
    2. Data Integrity and Publication (B)

      1. Carl J. Djerassi, Cantor's Dilemma, Doubleday, NY, 1989. (see also The Hudson Review, 1986, 39(3), 405 - 418). A study of academic research and the lives of graduate students that asks: could Nobel Prize-winning research have been fraudulent? BCDEF Some of his other books are worth reading but not directly appropriate for this course, for example, Menachem's Seed, Univ of Georgia Press, Athens GA 1997. This story about reproductive technology and the scientific elite examines the personal ethical issues surrounding the opportunities for "artificial" reproduction techniques. G
      2. Farley Mowat, Never Cry Wolf, Dell, NY, 1963. A semifictional (?) account of biological preconceptions. BFG
      3. Jennifer Ball, Catalyst, Faber and Faber, Winchester, MA, 1997. A story about a graduate student in chemistry and his artist wife, a nerdy friend and a colleague who misrepresented a little data and then got in deeper and deeper. BCDEF
      4. Nevil Shute, No Highway, Morrow & Co, NY 1948. An aircraft failure is predicted by a scientist whose personal life suggests his judgement might be impaired; is response warranted? Stereotypes of scientists, and a 1948 view of the role of women. The author designed aircraft, including one that turned out to be flawed. Finding a copy may be difficult. EF
      5. Robert Byrne, Skyscraper, Atheneum, NY, 1985. Lots of sex and intrique along with the technical detail. BF
      6. C. P. Snow, The Affair, Charles Scribner's Sons, NY 1960. The aftermath of a case of fraud; for more about the British educational system, see the appendix in C. P. Snow's The Masters, Scribner's, NY 1951. BCD
      7. Robert Martin, A Stampede of Zebras. A play (by an NIH biologist) in which a well-known scientist defends his co-author against an accusation of fraud; mysteriously neat notebooks appear in support of the case during a congressional hearing. BC
      8. Angus Wilson, Anglo-Saxon Attitudes, 1956. A novel about an important, but possibly fake, archaeological find. B
      9. Kingsley Amis, Lucky Jim,. How can you publish your research when your enemies are friends with the editors? A social science tale with much relevance. CDE
      10. Carl Djerassi, The Bourbaki Gambit, U of Georgia Press, Athens, GA, 1994. This book about a group of unwillingly retired scientists explores the role of ego in science. Is what they did unethical? CDE
      11. Amanda Cross, Death in a Tenured Position, Ballentine Books, NY, 1981. The book is about the suspicious death of an English prof, but reveals some of the seedy side of academic life. C
      12. Jennifer Ball, Catalyst, Faber and Faber, Winchester, MA, 1997. The story of some graduate students in chemistry and their friends, the pressure to succeed, and the temptation to make the experiments come out "right". B
      13. Competition and Other People Difficulties - Academia and Industry (BCDE)

      14. Patricia D. Cornwell, Cruel and Unusual, Avon Books, NY, 1993. A murder mystery involving careless handling of forensic evidence raises questions of boss-employee interactions. DEF
      15. Dorothy Sayers, Gaudy Night, Harper, NY 1960 (1936). Not about science, but provides some interesting insight into the difficulties of dealing with internal problems in an organization, in this case a school. CDE
      16. C. P. Snow, The Physicists, Little Brown and CO, Boston, 1981.
      17. Jane Smiley, Moo, Ivy Books (Ballentine, Random House), New York, 1995. This novel about the faculty, saff and students at a midwestern land-grant university specializing in agriculture exposes the potential for perfidy and madness in all universities. BCDF
      18. C. P. Snow, The Corridors of Power, This book is considers the role of scientists in public policy and poltical power struggles. F
      19. Sinclair Lewis, Arrowsmith, Grosset and Dunlap, NY, 1945.
      20. R. T. Campbell, Unholy Dying: A Detective Story, 1945. A thesis advisor who steals from his students is murdered. CDE
      21. Alan Lightman, The Good Benito, Pantheon Books, NY, 1995? A novel about the life of a young physicist, recommended as summer reading for scientists.
      22. Marshall Jevons, The Fatal Equilibrium, Ballantine Books, NY. A novel about a logical economics professor and a murder; it reveals some of the potential temptations of academia. CDEF
      23. Blaire French, The Ticking Tenure Clock: An Academic Novel, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998. An untenured professor of political science uses an animal-rights group, and some individuals in it, to examine human behavior. Do political scientists learn about informed consent? What ends will people go to for tenure? BG

        Discrimination (CD)

        Impact of Science and Technology - Present Technology (FGH)

      24. Stephen White, Privileged Information, Zebra Book, Kensington Pub., NY 1991. A clinical psychologist struggles with the ethics of protecting client confidentiality when his career and even his life may be at stake. FG
      25. Stanley Pottinger, The Fourth Procedure, Ballentine Books, NY 1995. This medical and legal mystery is about abortion. Although the tone is strongly pro-choice, all the characters get to present their points of view - and compromise them. Long, but fascinating. GH
      26. Gary Krist, Bad Chemistry, Random House, NY, 1998. The bad chemistry referred to in the title is between two of the characters, but the book explores a variety of issues raised by the use and marketing of recreational drugs and herbs - or how a botany major got rich. CEF
      27. Joseph Wambaugh, The Blooding, A murder mystery which delves into the controversy about DNA fingerprinting to establish guilt or innocence. FG
      28. Susan M. Gaines, Carbon Dreams, Creative Arts Book Co, Berkeley, CA, 2001. A basic scientist doing research on petroleum deposits gradually becomes aware that her research is relevant to modern oceanography. Her life is complicated by her status as an immigrant but enhanced by her deep connections to her family and culture. FH

        Impact of Science and Technology - Science Fiction and the Future (FGH)

      29. Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid's Tale, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1986. Sex discrimination in science carried to extremes. BCDEFG
      30. Walter M. Miller, Jr. A Canticle for Leibowitz, Lippincott, NY, 1959. Importance of the written record and freedom in science. BFG
      31. P. D. James, The Children of Men, Knopf, NY, 1992. How would humankind react if it faced the prospect of its own end? FG
      32. Nevil Shute, On the Beach, Morrow, NY 1957. The world after a nuclear war - not much science in it but lots on the effects of science and technology. F
      33. Naomi Mitchison, Solution Three, The Feminist Press, CUNY, NY, 1994? A world after "The Aggressions" solves the problem of population by mandating homosexuality, and producing clones instead - but there are rebels against the policy. FG
      34. Sheri S. Tepper, The Gate to Women's Country, Doubleday, 1988 and Bantam Books, 1989. Hundreds of years after mass destruction the world has been divided into women's countries of walled civilized towns and armed garrisons (men's country). Humanity faces its weaknesses.
      35. K. Vonnegut, The Cat's Cradle, Delacorte press, NY, 1963. A psychedelic tale which raises questions about scientists' responsibilities for their discoveries and presages a scientific controversy of the late 1960's. F
      36. Michael Crichton, Jurassic Park, Ballentine, NY 1990. Thoughtless commercial exploitation of genetic technology has frightening consequences. BFG
      37. Michael Crichton, Congo, 1980. Ethics in biology dominate this book. FG
      38. Michael Crichton, The Andromeda Strain, Knopf, NY, 1969. Some of the issues of bioethics raised were actively considered in the 1960's. FG
      39. Phillip Dick, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, . In a world with very human androids, the humans are striving for loss of individuality. Do the androids have a right to exist, just like the humans or are they expendable machines? Would you disssemble "Data"? FG
      40. Robin Cook, Mutation, G. Putnam and Sons, NY 1989. Genetic engineering of your own offspring to produce a superbright child seems like a good idea, but... This is a little too obvious for a good paper. FG
      41. Robin Cook, Outbreak, Berkley Books, NY 1987. Could the Ebola virus be spread by malice rather than accident? This is a little too obvious for a good paper. FG
      42. Robin Cook, Coma, Signet, NY 1977. A medical ethics thriller with not much discussion of the ethics - what might we do to obtain organs? A little too obvious to make a good paper. FG
      43. Mary Wollenstonecraft Shelley, Frankenstein, An interesting question to explore is whether the book reflects an antiscientific bias in her society or attempts to warn a society which believed science would cure all ills. FG
      44. Aldous Huxley, Brave New World, This book examines the issue of intelligence testing and prejudice from a different point of view, and makes eugenics seem reasonable. FG
      45. Carl Sagan, Contact, Simon and Shuster, New York, 1985. An astronomer detects and decodes a signal from space and then things get interesting. The SETI program was one of Sagan's passions, so he has a pretty good idea what the signal might be like, etc. Note - the book is different from the movie -read the book!
      46. Albert J. Elias, The Bowman Test, . How would you react if someone could tell you when you were going to die. How would a society use such information? FG
      47. Alan Lightman, The Diagnosis, Pantheon Books, 2000. A man whose job keeps him connected through every device known to modern technology has a breakdown and then has to deal with the HMO, which is about as insane as the patient. FG

    3. Autobiographies
      1. Primo Levi, The Periodic Table, Schocken Books, NY, 1984. A Jewish chemist in a concentration camp laboratory describes his activities with remarkable calm; he survived, but committed suicide in 1987. His other books and his poetry provide insight into his emotions. BEF
      2. Christopher Stoll, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage, Pocket Books (Simon and Shuster), NY, 1990. The author's free-wheeling search for the "wily hacker" who obtained US military secrets by illegal access to computers and sold them to East Germany. CF
      3. James Watson, The Double Helix, Atheneum, NY 1968. Perhaps a questionable example of ethics in science - who else should have received credit? see Ann Sayre, Rosalind Franklin and DNA, Norton, NY, 1975 under biographies.
      4. Francis Crick, What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery, Basic Books, New York, 1988. His view is very different from James Watson's of their joint discovery. AC
      5. Richard Feynmann, Surely You're Joking Mr. Feynmann, Adventures of a Curious Character, and/or What Do You Care What Other People Think? All of these books are fairly light with little philosophical comment. Feynman's driving curiosity is interesting, even exemplary, but comes across as somewhat selfish. The third book includes his tenure on the committee examining the Challenger explosion. F
      6. June Goodfield, An Imagined Life: A Story of Scientific Discovery, Univ. of Michigan Press, . A partially fictionalized biographical account of a few years in the life of a research scientist. AG
      7. Jeremy Bernstein, The Life it Brings: One Physicist's Beginnings, Ticknor and Fields, 1987. Child of rabbi becomes theoretical physicist becomes writer. His biographies of Einstein and Rabi in the New Yorker also make terrific reading.
      8. Salvador E. Luria, A Slot Machine, A Broken Test Tube, Harper and Row, 1985. Examples of "chance favoring the prepared mind" in microbiology research.
      9. Rita Levi-Montalcini, In Praise of Imperfection, Basic Books? She received the Nobel Prize for her work on the development of the nervous system. An abbreviated biography is found in McGrayne's book to complement this autobiography.
      10. Francois Jacob, The Statue Within, Basic Books, New York, 1988. A science student becomes guerrilla, then returns to science to win a Nobel Prize. Reflections on his life reveal many situations where he had to make decisions which were ethically difficult - sometimes he regretted his choices. B
      11. Luis Alvarez, Alvarez: Adventures of a Physicist, Basic Books, New York, 1987. From World War II radar and atomic bomb projects to the puzzle of dinosaur extinction. On the internet you may find claims that he used his power to prevent other theories of Cretaceous extinctions from being heard.
      12. Herbert F. York, Making Weapons, Talking Peace, Basic Books, New York, 1987. The cold war involved scientists in different ethical dilemmas than the war itself. EF
      13. Freeman Dyson, Disturbing the Universe, Harper and Row, NY, 1979. A superior writer and well-known physicist. EF
      14. Andrew Dequassie, The Green Flame: Surviving Government Secrecy, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1991. A personal account of a secret boron fuel project that was ultimately cancelled. EF
      15. Carl Djerassi, The Pill, Pygmy Chimps, and Degas' Horse: the Autobiography of Carl Djerassi, Basic Books, NY 1992. More personal comments and reflections than in "Steroids". BCDEF
      16. Carl Djerassi, Steroids Made it Possible, ACS, Washington, DC 1990. A straightforward account of the life of a chemist whose work often had immediate applications. A few reflections toward the end.
      17. Barbara McClintock, A Feeling for the Organism, A woman doing science in a different way and with great patience and persistence, in spite of few accolades, finally wins the Nobel Prize. BC
      18. Nevil Shute Norway, Slide Rule: The Autobiography of an Engineer, Morrow, NY, 1954. The author's early years in aircraft design provide interesting examples of the temptations of engineers to cut corners to meet deadlines and costs. EF
      19. Alfred Bader, Alfred Bader: Adventures of a Chemist Collector, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1995. His ABC's are art, the Bible and chemistry. A refugee of the second world was began a chemical company which developed a reputation for high quality and reliability; eventuall the board kicked him out of the CEO position for his trading of company stock. BCDF
      20. Geerat Vermeij, Privileged Hands: A Scientist's Life, Freeman, New York, 1996. Autobiography of a respected biologist and paleontologist who is also blind. Recently became interested in evolution and its episodic nature. Some interesting insights about discrimination against the handicapped. BCD
      21. Candace Pert, Molecules of Emotion: Why You Feel the Way You Feel. Scribner, New York, 1997. While this book is ostensibly about neurotransmitters, it is also Pert's story of her scientific life with the "power boys", the "Golden Boys" and other scientists at the "Palace", NIH. She tends to bite the hand that feeds her, but she is not boring. CDE
      22. Geerat Vermeij, Privileged Hands: A Remarkable Scientific Life, WH Freeman, 1997. How a blind man became an eminent evolutionary biologist. C
      23. Frances K. Conley, Walking Out on the Boys, This Professor at Stanford quit in protest when a "blatantly seductive" male colleague was appointed chair and went to the press with the accusations. She describes the pattern of sexual harassment in the profession of medicine, especially medical school, using her own experiences and those of others. CDEG
      24. Glenn T. Seaborg, A Chemist at the White House: From the Manhattan Project to the End of the Cold War, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1998. Seaborg kept diaries from the age of 14, and has used them to reconstruct his experiences as presidential advisor, head of the AEC, co-developer of the atomic bomb, university president, etc. A commitment to service and modesty make him especially interesting. CDEFH
      25. K. Haramundanis, ed., Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin: An Autobiography and Other Writings, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 1986. This astromomer showed in her PhD thesis that stars were predominantly made of hydrogen; the discovery so disturbed other astronomers that she had to tone down her conclusions and was prevented from continuing spectroscopic research. See essay by Horn. CDE
      26. Abraham Pais, A Tale of Two Continents. A Physicist's Life in a Turbulent World, Princeton Univ Press, 1997. Imagine studying quantum theory while hiding from the Nazis in a series of attics. Thanks to friends, he survived, although he was captured, and moved to the USA after the war to study nuclear structure. C
      27. Albert Einstein, Out of My Later Years, Philosophical Library, NY, 1950 (republished later by Greenwood Press). Not really an autobiography but a collection of essays which spans his professional life (nothing about personal life) and presents his opinions about a lot of things, including ethics. BCF
      28. June Goodfield, Playing God,
      29. Fay Ajzenberg-Selove, A Matter of Choices. Memoirs of a Female Physicist, Rutgers Univ. Press, Piscataway, NJ. Her own story of her difficult journey to international recognition in physics. CDE
      30. Heather Newbold, ed., Life Stories: World-Renowned Scientists Reflect on Their Lives and the Future of Earth, Univ of California Press, 2000. Lovelock, Lovejoy, Ehrlich, Rowland, Suzuki, etc. Environmental emphasis. BCFH

    4. Biographies

      Groups of People (most have less focus on ethics than fiction and autobiographies)

      1. S. B. McGrayne, Noble Prize Women in Science: Their Lives, Struggles and Momentous Discoveries, Carol Pub., NY, 1993. 9 winners and 4 others are profiled in some detail - what ethical issues arise in addition to the institutional discrimination? BCDE
      2. Maralene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham, Women in Chemistry: Their Changin Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC 1998. How women managed to do science when it was not acceptable (in their kitchens for example) and how women managed to enter certain fields because of exceptional leadership and accidents of history. Biographies are selected. CDE
      3. Robert Kanigel, Apprentice to Genius: the Making of a Scientific Dynasty, Macmillan, New York, 1986. A kind of family tree in biochemistry - successes and squabbles in pharmacology. CDF
      4. Robert M. Hazen, The New Alchemists: Breaking Through the Barriers of High Pressure, Times Books, NY, 1994. Competition in industrial research. CDEF
      5. Virginia Morell, Ancestral Passions. The Leakey Family and the Quest for Mankind's Beginnings, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1995. Two generations of Leakeys have changed the face of anthropology and Kenya. There have been squabbles with other anthropologists about territory, which are probably not mentioned in the book. Should scientists get involved in politics to ensure the survival of endanged sites and ecosystems? FH 639 pages
      6. Joseph McCormick and Susan Fisher-Hoch, Level 4: Virus Hunters of the CDC, Turner, 1996. Stories of real heroes among the scientists risking their lives working with deadly viruses looking for a cure. FG
      7. Sonny Kleinfeld, A Machine Called Indomitable, Times Books div. of Random House, NY, 1985. The view of one contributor to the invention of NMR imaging, one who thinks he should get all the credit. Compare Hollis' book, that of a bystander. BC
      8. Donald Hollis, Abusing Cancer Science, Strawberry Fields Press, Chelahis, WA, 1987. Hollis is the fly on the wall observing the struggle over priority in the development of NMR imaging, especially to detect cancer. BC
      9. Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, Simon and Shuster, New York, 1986. A fascinating and thorough description of the development of the atomic bomb, with analyses of successful and unsuccessful management and who was really the spy. No women of course. Not light reading. CDEF
      10. Richard Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydorgen Bomb, Touchstone Books, 1996. Another thorough book that uncovers some surprises, such who the spies really were and who really delayed the bomb's development. CDEF
      11. Marelene F. Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey W. Rayner-Canham, eds., A Devotion to their Science: Pioneer Women of Radioactivity. McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 1997. Contrary to current assumptions, Marie Curie was not the only woman scientist of her time. This book includes the stories of 23 women in radioactivity alone, which attracted a lot of women because it was a new field - and they were welcomed by a few radical-progressive scientists. CDE
      12. Susan A. Ambrose, Kristin L. Dunkle, Barbara B. Lazarus, Indira Nair, and Deborah A. Harkus, Journeys of Women in Science and Engineering: No Universal Constants, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1997. 88 unique women tell their stories to the authors, stories of joy and success, of exploitation and sexual harrassment, discouragement and encouragement. This book was intended to provide young women scientists with role models by showing them the rich diversity of women in science. CDE
      13. G. Kass-Simon and Patricia Farnes, eds. Women of Science. Righting the Record, Indiana Univ Press, Bloomington, 1990. Women scientists examined the roots of their disciplines and found important women who were overlooked; this book is a collection of these stories. CDE
      14. Autumn Stanley, Mothers and Daughters of Invention. Notes for a Revised History of Technology, Rutgers Univ Press, Piscataway, NJ. What did women invent? Some surprising things like the cotton gin and (I think) the sewing machine, whose invention has been ascribed to a man instead. This history begins in prehistory and goes to the present. CDEG
      15. Helena M. Pycior, Nancy G. Slack, Pnina G. Abir-Am, eds, Creative Couples in the Sciences, Rutgers Univ Press, Piscataway, NJ. Until recently, women scientists needed not just a mentor but a protector, and many women scientists worked as assistants to their husbands, collaborations which were highly productive. Now, the collaborations are between people who each have a professional position (although women tend to get less of the credit for joint work than men even now). CDE
      16. Ann B. Sheir, Cultivating Women, Cultivating Science. Flora's Daughter's and Botany in England 1760 to 1860, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD. Biographies of woman botanists in Victorian culture. CDE.
      17. Paul de Kruif, Microbe HuntersBlue Ribbon Books, New York, 1926. Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Koch, Metchnikoff, Bruce, Ross, Grassi, Walter Reed, Paul Ehrlich; disputes and how they were pursued and resolved. G
      18. Robert Wright, Three Scientists and Their Gods : looking for meaning in an age of information, Times Books, New York, 1988. Insight into what makes scientists like E. O. Wilson tick. BG
      19. Jonathan Weiner, The Beak of the Finch: a story of evolution in our time, Knopf, New York, 1994. Peter and Rosemary Grant's research in the Galapagos. BG
      20. Elga Wasserman, The Door in the Dream: Conversations with Eminent Women in Science, Joseph Henry Press, 2000. The interviews / portraits are grouped by generation to ilustrate problems characteristic of different periods. CD
      21. Margaret A. M. Murray, Women Becoming Mathematicians: Creating a Professional Identity in Post-World War II America, MIT press, Bambridge, MA, 2000. Women were scarcest in math graduates during this period, and these women saw significant changes. CD
      22. Biographies of Individuals

      23. Ann Sayre, Rosalind Franklin and DNA, Norton, NY, 1975. The story of a brilliant woman who was unappreciated and isolated in sexist British science, whose data and interpretation was used without her knowledge by Watson, Crick and Wilkins to unravel the structure of DNA. BCE
      24. Peter Goodchild, J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of Worlds, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1980. BF
      25. James Gleick, Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynmann, Pantheon, NY, 1992. Biographies of Feynmann provide a different perspective from his own accounts. BCDEF
      26. Jagdish Mehra, The Beat of a Different Drum: The Life and Science of Richard Feynmann, Oxford U. Press, 1994. Biographies of Feynmann provide a different perspective from his own accounts. BCDEF
      27. Abraham Pais, Niels Bohr's Times, in Physics, Philosophy and Polity, Oxford University Press, NY. Niels Bohr was more than a brilliant scientist and Danish patriot - he used his considerable reputation to influence western policy. CDF
      28. Thomas Hager, Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1995. A pretty thorough description of the long and full life of the only person to win Nobel prizes in both science and peace - a large number of major discoveries and major controversies, including a running battle with the House Un-American Activities Committee. There are a large number of recent biographies of Pauling, of which this was generally the best reviewed. A comparison of Pauling books and reviews can be found in Derek Davenport, J. Chem. Educ., 1996, 73, A210 - A212. Pauling never shied away from controversy and made significant impacts in chemical bond theory, nutrition and nuclear disarmament, and won two Nobel prizes, one for Chemistry and the other for Peace. Unauthorized, 627 pages. ABCDEFH
      29. Barbara Marinacci, Linus Pauling in His Own Words, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1995. The author provides context and commentary, and Pauling's arguments against nuclear testing are pretty convincing. AFH
      30. Ted Goertzel and Ben Goertzel, Linus Pauling: A Life in Science and Politics, Basic Books, NY, 1995. This book derived from a study of the childhoods of eminent people and was held up for years because of Pauling's advocacy of Vitamin C and orthomolecular medicine, considered by most scientists, and the authors, to be unfounded. Did Pauling defend real data or use his fame to perpetuate myth? BCFH
      31. biographies of I. I. Rabi, e.g. by Jeremy Bernstein. F
      32. Gerald L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, Princeton U. Press, Princeton, NJ 1995. One hundred years ago, ethical issues regarding testing of vaccines were not yet developed; was Pasteur's rabies vaccine tested in too risky a way? And how much did he steal or borrow from colleagues and competitors? A new look at an otherwise careful and influential scientist. It would be worthwhile to compare this account with a more positive one. BCEFG.
      33. Susan Quinn, Marie Curie: A Life, Simon and Schuster, NY 1995. This very thorough biography explores her rejection and acceptance by the science community, her denial of the health effects of radiation, etc. I expect this is quite different from the biography by her daughter. CDEFG
      34. Loren R. Graham, The Ghost of the Executed Engineer, Harvard U., Cambridge, MA, 1996. The story of Peter Palchinsky, who predicted the corruption and collapse of the Soviet economy (not to mention its buildings). F
      35. J. L. Heilbron, Dilemmas of and Upright Man: Max Planck as Spokesman for German Science, U of California Press, Berkeley
      36. Ruth Lewin Sime, Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics, Univ of California Press, Berkeley, CA 1996. Usually in science it is not the first observer but the explainer of a new phenomenon that wins the Noble prize - not in this case. Lise Meitner was the person who recognized and explained nuclear fusion - while she was a refugee in Sweden from Hitler's Germany. A remarkable woman. CDE
      37. Ken Manning, Black Apollo of Science: Ernest Everett Just, Oxford U. Press, New York, 1983.
      38. Keay Davidson, Carl Sagan: A Life, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1999. A longish book about a clever scientist who made some important contributions, but whose colleagues respected him less for communicating with the public. CF
      39. Philip J. Hilts, Scientific Temperaments: Three Lives in Contemporary Science, Simon and Shuster, NY, 1982. ABCDE
      40. Linda Lear, Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature, Henry Holt & Co., New York, NY, 1997. Rachel Carson's career combined her two passions - for writing and for the natural world. CDEG
      41. Rodney Baker, And the Waters Turned to Blood, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1997. This book is less the story of the study of Pfisteria piscicida than of JoAnn Burkholder who has worked on this organism under difficult circumstances. Her work and career suffered from a lot of difficult people, some of whom were just prejudiced, and some of whom tried to deflect concern about the human hazards. CDEF
      42. Eugene Strauss, Rosalind Yalow, Nobel Laureate: Her Life and Work in Medicine, Plenum, NY, 1998. She had to overcome the prejudice of society and her religion (orthodox Judaism) to earn a PhD and pursue a research career in physics. The book, by a colleague, also illustrates the changing position of women in the scientific community. CG
      43. Adrian Desmond, Huxley. From Devil's Disciple to Evolution's High Priest, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1997. Vicotiran social factors and Huxley's personal life influenced his science. "Sympathetic and lively". 820 pages about a fascinating charater. CFG
      44. Rodney Baker, And the Waters Turned to Blood, Simon and Schuster, NY, 1997. The story of Dr. JoAnn Burkholder's scientific studies of Pfiesteria piscicida, her own experience with its toxicity and her attempts to bring the dangers to the attention of the public. The story is not yet over, although some of the "villians" in this book are no longer in positions of power. FG
      45. Eugene Strauss, Rosalyn Yalow, Nobel Laureate: Her Life and Work in Medicine, Plenum, NY, 1998. Pioneer in nuclear medicine and orthodox Jew, she crashed through social and religious barriers to succeed, but not without a great dale of discrimination. CDE
      46. Barbara Marinacci and Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Linus Pauling on Peace: A Scientist Speaks Out on Humanism and World Peace, Rising Star Press, Los Altos, CA, 1998. Pauling spoke out for what he believed in and he and his family suffered for their beliefs. This book is a collection of his writings. F
      47. John L. Heilbron, Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science, Harvard U Press, Cambridge, MA. Planck stayed in Germany through the 3rd Reich to try to carry Greman science through the storms of Nazism, while many were leaving. F


    1. General English (Entries 5-10 were suggested by the Advanced Writing Course Committee)
      1. Jane E. Aaron, The Little, Brown Compact Handbook, Longman div of Addison Wesley, New York, 1998. The current "official" grammar handbook for TU's writing courses. The organization by kind of problem (punctuation, sentence parts, etc.) makes it possible to get help even if you don't remember what your problem is called. Has reference style sections (most not applicable to science), a glossary and a nice first chapter on the writing process.
      2. William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th Ed., Allyn and Bacon, New York, 1979. A brief, much-used classic discussing correct usage, clarity and style. High standards and entertaining examples.
      3. Edward D. Johnson, The Handbook of Good English, Facts on File, New York, 1982. (Originally published as the Washington Square Press Handbook of Good English.) Grammar, punctuation and style and organization.
      4. Bryan A. Garner, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford Univ. Press. This handbook debunks some of the old rules that were based on forcing English to be like Latin.
      5. Alln M. Siegal amd William G. Connolly, The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage, Times Books, New York. This guide may be a little more liberal than many others, but the NY Times is known for its quality.
      6. William Zinsser, On Writing Well, 2nd Ed., Harper and Row, New York, 1980. Examples of good style discussed, and specific suggestion on how to improve your own style.
      7. Bruce Bawer, The Contemporary Stylist, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, NY, 1987. A brief presentation of grammar, punctuation, organization, style and sexist writing.
      8. J. C. Hodges, W. B. Horner, S. S. Webb and R. K. Miller, Harbrace College Handbook, 12th Ed., Harcourt Brace Publishers, Fort Worth, TX, 1994. A widely used, conservative, thorough, handbook on writing basics, organization, rhetoric and style.
      9. Wilfred Stone amd J. G. Bell, Prose Styles: A Handbook for Writers, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 1983. A complete and sophisticated handbook on the basics plus logic, tone, usage, and research paper writing. Out of print but available in libraries.
      10. H. W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, 2nd Ed., Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1965. An alphabetic witty listing of misused words and styles and mispronunciations, with corrections and histories.
      11. R. W. Burchfield, ed. The New Fowler's Modern English Usage, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK. Strongly opinionated like the original, still fighting lost battles, perhaps.
      12. Allen L. Wyatt, Success with Internet, Boyd and Frasier, 1995. How to get information to help with your writing.
      13. Thomas Mann, A Guide to Library Research Methods, Oxford Univ. Press, NY, 1986. Just about everything you need to know about how to get information from a library.
      14. Melissa Walker, Writing Research Papers, 2nd Ed., W. W. Norton, NY, 1987. Using the library and taking notes, organizing, writing and revising. Little on the basics.
      15. Barbara Walvoord, Writing: Strategies for All Disciplines, Prentice-Hall, NY, 1985. A writing-across-the-curriculum text about the writing process; little on the basics.
      16. Diane Bennett Durkin, Writing in the Disciplines, Random House, NY, 1987. Specific advice for each area: humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and strategies for drafting and improving.
    2. Scientific Writing
      1. Gladys G. Leithauser and Marilynn P. Bell, The World of Science: An Anthology for Writers, CBS College, Holt, Reinhart, Winston, NY, 1987. Interesting excerpts from writings of thoughtful scientists. Good examples of excellence in writing about science. ABCDE
      2. David Porush, A Short Guide to Writing About Science, HarperCollins College Publishers, NY, 1995. This little book explains everything you need to know (except the content) about how to write a lab report for a professor, a scientific article for publication or a essay about science for a newspaper, or a course like this one. Not just organization but audience, style and clarity, The only other thing you will need is a specific style guide for references and the like. Read this before you write your first technical paper. BCDEFGH
      3. George D. Gopen and Judith A. Swan, The Science of Scientific Writing, Amer. Sci. 1990, 78, 550 - 558. Read this before you write your first technical paper.
      4. Howard M. Kanare, Writing the Laboratory Notebook, American Chemical Society Washington, DC, 1985. An excellent practical guide for how to record and certify your data, to ensure it will stand ethical and legal scrutiny. Read this before your first research project (or a comparable book). BF
      5. Anne Eisenberg, "Metaphor in the Language of Science", Sci Amer., 1992, 266, 144 -
      6. Janet S. Dodd, Ed. The ACS Style Guide, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1986. Specific rules for papers to be published in ACS journals. Includes "Ethical Guidelines to the Publication of Chemical Research". A necessity for the research chemist.
      7. J. Seltzer, ed. Understanding Scientific Prose,
      8. Scott L. Montgomery, The Scientific Voice, Guilford, NY, 1995. The author looks at the development of the scientific style of writing, and concludes that it represents an ideology as much as a style, and a certain anti-intellectualism. He provides essays and examples to illustrate how language affects the course of scientific thought, no matter how much we deny it does. BCF
      9. Articles on writing for science (chemistry) students, including references to other materials: N. P. Shires, J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 494-495. E. F. Carlisle and J. B. Kinsinger, J. Chem. Educ., 1977, 54, 632-634.
      10. Anton S. Wallner and Elizabeth Latosi-Sawin, "Technical Writing and Communication in a Senior-Level Chemistry Seminar", J. Chem. Educ., 1999, 76, 1404 - 6. A writing-intensive course focussed on reading an writing in journal style.
      11. Jeffrey Kovac and Donna W. Sherwood, "Writing in Chemistry: An Effective Learning Tool", J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1399 - 1403. Note-taking and other writing assignments in introductory courses form the basis for writing-across-the-curriculum in chemistry.
      12. M. Allen, The Craft of Scientific Writing: A Guide for Managers, Scientists and Engineers, Springer, NY 2000.

    E-mail me at:, especially if you have suggestions for other references or had trouble with any of the links.

    Last revision June 2000